This page lists a variety of common mental/physical disorders related to modern psychology/physiology and 18th century medicine.

Alzheimer’s disease - This disease is the most common form of dementia. Symptoms include confusion, irritability and aggression, mood swings, language breakdown, long-term memory loss, and the general withdrawal of the sufferer as their senses decline. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death.

Agnosia - This is the lack of the ability to recognize things. The disorder can affect people in various ways. Every case will vary in terms of what the individual can and can not identify.

Alien Hand Syndrome - The feeling that one's hand is possessed by a force outside of one’s control. The syndrome typically arises after trauma to the brain, after brain surgery or after a stroke or an infection of the brain.

Alexithymia - Alexithymia is a condition in which one can feel emotion but are quite unable to express it. This probably arises when there is some disruption in the neural connections between the conscious emotional processing areas and the brain regions that control facial expression, speech and the other physical means by which emotions are displayed.

Amnesia - Amnesia is a memory condition in which memory is disturbed. In simple terms, it is the loss of memory. The causes of amnesia are organic or functional. It could also be spontaneous.

Anorexia - Anorexia is an eating disorder in which people starve themselves because they "see" themselves as fat. They have an impaired hypothalamic function. Imaging studies show that activity in the limbic system does not seem to be transferred in the normal way to the cortex. This may explain why anorexics typically do not feel hunger, even when their bodies are starving.

Anosognosia- A condition in which a person who suffers a disability seems unaware of or denies the existence of his or her disability.

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (ADHD or AD/HD) - is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. Hyperactivity and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. Patients are usually easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another, Have difficulty focusing on one thing, Be constantly in motion, and very impatient.

Autism -
Also called: Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) or Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Autism is a disorder that is usually first diagnosed in early childhood. The main signs and symptoms of autism involve communication, social interactions and repetitive behaviors.Because people with autism can have very different features or symptoms, health care providers think of autism as a "spectrum" disorder. The cause of autism is not known. Autism lasts throughout a person's lifetime. There is no cure, but treatment can help. Treatments include behavior and communication therapies and medicines to control symptoms.

Capgra’s delusion - A type of delusion where the person thinks those close to them have been replaced with impostors.

Catatonia – Catatonia is a syndrome of psychological and motorological disturbances. Patients with catatonia may experience an extreme loss of motor skills or even constant hyperactive motor activity. Catatonic patients will sometimes hold rigid poses for hours and will ignore any external stimuli. Patients with catatonic excitement can die of exhaustion if not treated.

Coprolalia - Coprolalia is the uttering of foul languange, which occurs with Tourette's syndrome. This disorder can be distressing because it causes people to shun them. Sometimes it can be controlled for a brief period of time, but eventually the urge is satisfied.

Cotard’s delusion - A type of delusion where the person thinks that they are dead, even when they are alive and healthy.

Dementia - Significant impairment of intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships. People with dementia also lose their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may experience personality changes and behavioral problems such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations.

Depression – Depression refers to a lowering, in particular a reduction in a particular biological variable or the function of an organ. Some people describe depression as “living in a black hole” or having a feeling of impending doom. However, some depressed people don't feel sad at all—instead, they feel lifeless, empty, and apathetic. Patients may experience Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, Loss of interest in daily activities, Appetite or weight changes, Sleep changes, Irritability or restlessness, loss of energy, Self-loathing, Concentration problems and unexplained aches and pains.

Doppelgangers - A disorder which causes the person to see a double of themselves as if they are staring into a mirror.

Down Syndrome (DS) - It is a disorder at the chromosome level that causes
mental retardation, a characteristic face, and multiple malformations. Down syndrome is a relatively common birth defect. The chromosome abnormality affects both the physical and intellectual development of the individual.
Site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome

Dualism - The belief that something is composed of two fundamentally different components. Descartes’ Cartesian Dualism deals specifically with the dual existence of man.

Environmental Dependency syndrome - is a syndrome where the affected individual relies on environmental cues to accomplish goals or tasks. It implies a disorder in personal autonomy where individual psychological traits influenced the way in which loss of autonomy was made manifest. As an example, adults diagnosed with ADHD rely on ADHD coaches to provide the necessary cues at the appropriate times for the individual. This helps the individual make decisions to prioritize and order tasks. Patients with focal unilateral frontal lobe lesions were observed in different environments such as a doctor's office, a lecture room, a car, a garden, while visiting an apartment where various activities were possible, and in a gift shop. Individuals with this syndrome exhibit striking behavior, it was as if implicit in the environment was an order to respond to the situation in which they found themselves.

Epilepsy - Chronic disorder that cause unprovoked seizures, this is the result of too much or too little activity in certain parts of the brain.

Erotomania - This is an obsessional delusion with a strong sexual element. They believe that another person - usually someone famous - is in love with them and passing them secret messages of adoration. Sometimes they report making love to the object of their obsession, even though they have never met them.

Fregoli’s delusion - A rare disorder that causes the person to think they are being followed by a single person wearing many different disguises.

Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome - This is a neurological disorder which is defined by involuntary movements (tics) of the face, arms, limbs or trunk. These tics are frequent, repetitive and rapid. There are also verbal tics (vocalizations) that usually occur with the movements. These vocalizations include grunting, throat clearing, shouting and barking. The verbal tics may also be expressed as coprolalia (the involuntary use of obscene words or socially inappropriate words and phrases).

Kluver-Bucy syndrome - This is a condition in which the patient tries to stuff anything in the vicinity into their mouth and/or make love to it. One unfortunate man with this condition was arrested while trying to make love to a pavement.

Magnetic apraxia - Magnetic apraxia is a type of forced grasp response, which often may be associated with frontal lesions and a degenerative disease known as corticobasal degeneration with neuronal achromasia (Rebeiz syndrome) or related conditions such as Alzheimer disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. This apraxia may be unilateral (affecting either side) and may resemble utilization behaviors or the alien hand syndrome. Patients may be unable to disengage from objects in front of them.

Mania - is a state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/ or energy levels, which is a criterion for certain psychiatric diagnoses. Characteristics of mania include rapid speech, racing thoughts, decreased need for sleep, hypersexuality, euphoria, impulsiveness, grandiosity, and an uncontrollably intense interest in goal-directed activities. In full-blown mania, often the manic person will feel as though his or her goal(s) trump all else, that there are no consequences or that negative consequences would be minimal, and that they need not exercise restraint in the pursuit of what they are after.

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) - is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a person displays multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters), each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An anxiety disorder that is characterized by the sufferer experiencing repeated obsessions and/or compulsions that interfere with the person's ability to function socially, occupationally, or educationally, either as a result of the amount of time that is consumed by the symptoms or the marked fear or other distress suffered by the person.

Oedipal complex - An unconscious feeling to take possession of the parent of the opposite sex, while eliminating the parent of the same sex.

Paranoia - This is a thought process heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion. Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs concerning a perceived threat towards oneself.

Parkinson’s Disease
- This is a "degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions."
Source: absoluteastronomy.com

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - A stress disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death.

Priapism - Priapism is a condition in which a man has a permanent erection.This condition is possibly caused by septum damage.

Prosopagnosia -The lack of the ability to differentiate between people’s faces, also commonly referred to as face blindness.

- A personality disorder indicated by a pattern of lying, exploitiveness, heedlessness, arrogance, sexual promiscuity, low self-control, and lack of empathy and remorse. Violent and criminal offenses may be indicative of this disorder

Recovered memory syndrome - the suppression of a significant, and usually traumatic memory. There is still debate about whether this is actually a legitimate disorder.

Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) - People who have this defective gene lack a sufficient number of dopamine receptors in their brains to produce the "neurochemical reward cascade" of the brain. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances can also lead to a corruption of the "cascade function." Those suffering from RDS are unable to produce a feeling of well-being and consequently often self-medicate with substances that help raise the levels of "feel good" chemicals in their system.

Schizophrenia - is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a neuropsychiatric and mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction.

Semantic dementia
- is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic memory in both the verbal and non-verbal domains. The most common presenting symptoms are in the verbal domain however (with loss of word meaning) and it is therefore often characterized (incorrectly) as a primary language disorder (a so-called progressive fluent aphasia).

Synaesthesia - The condition which links two senses together, in other words having the ability to see sounds and smell sights.

Syndrome E - refers to planned, ideologically-motivated mass murders, committed in groups and accompanied by “elation.” Implicated are heightened functioning of certain frontal lobe regions with certain reduced limbic involvement.

Tinnitus - A condition which causes the person to think they are hearing sounds, even though there is not an external source of noise.

Tourette's syndrome - (see Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome) "...an inherited disorder of the nervous system, characterized by a variable expression of unwanted movements and noises (tics)." {1}