People
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Note: need to add John WEsley, Alexander Cruden, Margaret Nicholson, and works cited for these. The Journal of the Reverend John Wesley, London: J. Kershaw, 1827, 4 vols, I, pg. 273.
11. Alexander Cruden, The Adventures of Alexander the Corrector, with an Account of the Chelsea Academics, or the Private Places for the Confinement of Such as are Supposed to be Deprived of the Exercise of Their Reason (London, for the author, 1754). Part 2, pp. 29-30.
This page focuses on a number of influential figures in the philosophy and science of the mind both during and prior to the eighteenth century. Also found on this page are several cases of mental disorders during the 1700s-1800s.



Allan Ingram
Prof._Allan_Ingram.jpg
Prof. Allan Ingram
Allan Ingram is a Professor of English at the University of Northumbria, UK. He has worked for a number of years on issues concerning mental health and well being in the 18th century, and particularly on the paradoxes and dilemmas of expressing the experience of insanity within a period where diagnosis and treatment could be arbitrary. In his book “Patterns of Madness in the Eighteenth Century: A Reader”, he reflects the relationship, or the lack of one, between patients and medical practitioners. This book is a compilation of first-hand real life stories of people with medical disorders. It gives an insight into a period that saw a decline in religious explanations for insanity and a consequent professionalism that arose. The book includes extracts from the writings of authors such as Johnson, Boswell and Blake.

Sources:
http://www.beforedepression.com/AllanIngram.htm
Picture courtesy of: http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/sass/about/humanities/englishhome/english_staff_list/a_ingram


Aretaeus
images.jpgArataeus was an ancient roman physician. Considered second only to Hippocrates, his writings on "pleurisy, diphtheria, tetanus, pneumonia, asthma, and epilepsy" displayed an ethical and observational method which parallels the ideal physician of modern times. Arataeus made many of his medical claims based on the belief in a “vital air” or “pneuma” and the four humors studied earlier by Hippocrates. These principles made him the perfect model for the eighteenth century physician.

Sources:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/33531/Aretaeus-of-Cappadocia

Artemidorus of Tarsus
According to the biographical Dictionary of the Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge, Artemidorus was a grammarian of the ancient city of Tarsus in Turkey during the time of the Roman Empire. Grammarians focused on the development of linguistics and its rules depending on the region and time in which the person lived. Not much information is known beside his name being mentioned by Strabo,Greek historian, philosopher and geographer, in his Geographica.{1} In relation to the eighteen century mind, Artemidorus of Tarsus is mentioned as an example of a person suffering sensitive insanity by Thomas Arnold . He said “Artemidorus the grammarian, as we are told by Caelius Aurelianus, being terrified by the appearance of a crocodile, was so much disordered by the fright, that he not only imagined the animal had devoured his left leg, and hand, but even forgot all he learned” {2}

Sources:
{1} http://books.google.com/books?id=qsE5AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA691&lpg=PA691&dq=artemidorus++of+tarsus+grammarian&source=bl&ots=P4_tdN9yb4&sig=Zk0ZlDjH7aHV80cbTw7bBAYqX0w&hl=en&ei=pyKxS5voFYL98AbbvtmDAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CAsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=artemidorus%20%20of%20tarsus%20grammarian&f=false
{2} "Thomas Arnold." Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 171
Back to Top

Benjamin Rush (1746-1813)
A portrait of Doctor Benjamin Rush
A portrait of Doctor Benjamin Rush

Founder of the American Psychiatry Association, publisher of the first chemistry textbook in the United States, and the publisher of the first treatise of psychiatry (Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind) {2} in the United States, Doctor Benjamin Rush led the way for the advancements of medicine during the 18th century. He was an advocate for the humane treatment of people with mental disorders. A strong supporter of purging and blood-letting, Rush believed that "all diseases are fevers caused by overstimulation of blood vessels." {1} During the yellow fever outbreak in Philadelphia in 1793, Benjamin Rush wrote of his first-hand accounts as he worked to help save the lives of the sick. {2} Doctor Rush is credited with designing and using the tranquilizing chair in treating mindness. From all of his accomplishments and contributions to psychiatry in the United States, he is now known as the "Father of American Psychiatry." {3}

Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816)
Thomas Arnold was a qualified specialist in medicine and nervous disorders and a physician at many madhouses across England. Thomas Arnold served "as owner of one of the largest private madhouses in the country," during which he meticulously documented and classified the varied types of insanity based on direct observation of symptoms. The scientific nature and broad scope of his research led to publications of two volumes of Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity(1782-86), and "a third, on management of the insane, was published in 1809." In these volumes he explored the many sub-divisions of madness as classified by observation from "'Ideal Insanity,' 'Notional insanity,' 'Phrenetic,' 'Incoherent,' 'Maniacal,' and 'Sensitive.'

Sources:
{1} http://www.biography.com/articles/Benjamin-Rush-9467074
{2} http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/rush_benjamin.html
{3} http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/paharc/features/brush.html

Bernard Mandeville
http://bastiat.org/pic/bastiat1.jpg
http://bastiat.org/pic/bastiat1.jpg

Bernard Mandeville was born in Rotterdam in 1670 and died in 1773 (Ingram 49). He is most famous for his satirical poem called Fable of the Bees. This criticized giving money to charity schools teaching the poor because education didn’t add virtue, and that the richer people were just better at hiding their not virtuous behavior[2]. He also was a doctor and helped treat people who were mentally ill. He had some novel ideas about ways to treat hysteria, he would calmly talk to a patient and discuss their life and their problems with hysteria(Ingram 50). He attempted to show that this would treat patient’s hysteria and mental illness better than bloodletting, purging, or any other contemporary medical procedure of use(Ingram 50).

Sources:
(1) Ingram, Allan. Patterns of Madness in the Eighteenth Century. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998.
(2) Fonseca , Gonalo L.. "Bernard de Mandeville, 1670-1733.". THE HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT . April 13, 2010 <http://homepage.newschool.edu/hetprofiles/mandev.htm>.
photo courtesy of http://bastiat.org/pic/bastiat1.jpg


Blaise Pascal
Portrait of Blaise Pascal by Philippe de Champaign
Portrait of Blaise Pascal by Philippe de Champaign
(1623-1662)

Blaise Pascal was a 17th century French mathematical prodigy, physicist, devout Catholic philosopher and prolific popular writer. He was remembered in the 18th century for his work on probability theory – which was reflected in his religious views, his work on fluid dynamics, his eponymous wager and for his immensely popular Provincial Letters. In these letters, Pascal condemned the moral teachings of the Jesuits, promoted a return to inner religion and became known as a master of French prose. In his posthumously published treatise on Christian apologetics, the Pensées, Pascal expressed his view that the mind can never obtain truth through pure reason and without God’s grace, exists merely as something that is hopelessly confused. In response to his own arguments against both the rationalism of Decartes and the empiricism of Locke, Pascal introduced his famous wager. The wager states, in essence, that if God does not exist, we lose nothing by believing in him; and if God does exist, we gain eternal salvation by believing in him. Pascal died at the age of only 39, after suffering from tremendous stomach pains which he likened to “balls of fire” in his sides (Arnold 172). Pascal’s thoughts on religion and the mind introduced new perspectives into the 18th century, contrasting rationalism and empiricism with uncertainty and probability.

Sources:
{1} http://www.biography.com/articles/Blaise-Pascal-9434176
{2} "Thomas Arnold." Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.

Bryan Robinson
Dr. Bryan Robinson (1680-1754) was the pupil of Dr. Richard Helsham who was an 18th century Dublin physician {1}.Dr. Robinsonbecame a physician at Trinity College in Dublin in 1711 {3}. He was also a professor of physics in 1745, and president of King and Queens College of Physicians in 1718, 1727, and 1739 {3}. He mainly published mathematical and medical writings. He publ07220199.jpgished Helsham’s lectures in 1739. However, Robinson did add a preface to this work which primarily quoted Newton’s Methodology in physics {1}. The work went on to be made into eight editions, the last of which was published in 1834 {1}. Robinson developed many “chymical” theories which were mainly based on ideas of Newtonian chymistry. However, Robinson also included the idea of universal atmospheric acids (elements in the atmosphere that form amino acids, or were used in combustion and respiration) to this idea {2}. He believed that these acids accounted for the chymical fermentation of life {2}. Robinson was one of the first physicians to try to understand the role that earth’s atmosphere had on living organisms, primarily the process of respiration. Furthermore, Dr. Robinson performed experiments attempting to draw a connection between climate and male body excretion. At the time this was a very unusual way to represent the body {4}. All this goes to show that Dr. Bryan Robinson laid groundwork for new ways of understanding the human body.

Sources:
{1} http://iopscience.iop.org/0143-0807/21/3/702?ejredirect=migration
{2} http://www.eighteenthcenturythought.org/VolTwoContents2.html
{3} Dictionary of National Biography p.1117
{4} The healing arts: health, disease and society in Europe P. 182.
{5} Picture: http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-523-099-C
Back to Top




William Battie
Dr. William Battie is most well known for his work Treatise on Madness that he wrote in
1758. During the 18th century, madness was often viewed as a driving internal force of which could only be cured through painful, impractical methods. These impractical methods included invasive techniques such as BLOOD LETTING, as well as homemade draughts, and various purging methods. Battie’s work was some of the most widely used and respected during the 18th century Battie held high offices in two of the most widely used insane asylum clinics in the 18th century, BETHLAM Hospital and ST. LUKE’S Hospital for Lunatiks. He served as a governor to BETHLAM, and was once of the founders of ST. LUKE’S. Battie’s work can be characterized by his belief that the treatment of madness did not necessarily call for all the unconventional methods. Battie believed that madness could be combated by an approach to manage it, rather than curing it, and he felt very strongly about the good complete confinement could do for a patient. He characterized madness into two categories, “Original” and “Consequential”.

Sources:
{1} “Bernard Mandeville.” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 49-53.

Case XVI-A.M. (Haslam )
The story of Henry Roberts is one that demonstrates the corruptness of the English government during the 18th century. He owned an estate worth around 40,000 Pounds including a sugar plantation. He was accused of being a lunatic and brought to court, where there were many testimonials regarding his sanity. Some spoke of him as a sane man, without a chance of being a lunatic, while others described him as a fool. The stories about his past all seemed to demonstrate a good amount of sanity. The judge first ruled he could not marry, then later ruled that Henry must attend meetings with eight men who had affidavits for Henry. These men interrogated him over scrupulous things, and in some cases Henry could not answer the questions. One of the men, Mr. Bethel, posed the question, "I have a sugar plantation myself, and cannot answer these questions, and will the lord Ch---r order a commission against me?" Henry was being abused by the system and eventually was locked away in solitary confinement with all of his property taken. He died after being treated with a course of vomits for 'a hickough'.

Belcher, William
William Belcher spent 1778-1795 in a madhouse at Hackney. During his time in the madhouse he slowly began to doubt his own sanity and begun to think about how one becomes insane. After he was released from the madhouse he wrote a pamphlet on his theories on sanity. He wrote about how after he was released he doubted his own sanity after experiencing life in an insane asylum. He then proceeded to explain his theories on how to make the sane become insane and how ambiguous sanity really is.

Sources:
{1} “Bernard Mandeville.” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 101-106.

Bonet, Theophile (1620-1689)
anmpx04x0063.jpg
Source: http://web2.bium.univ-paris5.fr/img/?refbiogr=2550&mod=s

Source: http://web2.bium.univ-paris5.fr/img/?refbiogr=2550&mod=s
Theophile Bonet, born into a family of physicians, was born in Geneva, but received his medical degree in Bologna in 1643, and returned back to Geneva. He later published Sepulchretum in 1700, which was a collection of autopsies acheived by himself and other colleages. Although Bonet was not awarded for his compilation, it was considered extremely influential for the time. His interest in anatomy was not common for that time, but he had a very dilligent way of learning and reviewing his results. He paved the way for Giovanni Battista Morgagni, an eighteenth century physician, who admired Bonet's work and learned from it.

Sources:
{1} The Journal of the American Medical Association
{2} The American Journal of Pathology
{3} Patterns of Madness (page 168)

Bonnet, Charles
Charles Bonnet
Charles Bonnet
(1720-1793)

Charles Bonnet was a Swiss naturalist and philosopher, celebrated in the 18th century for his work on insects, his mechanistic philosophy of mind, and the bizarre mental disorder which bears his name. Bonnet’s philosophical views were fundamentally dualist, viewing man as a being constructed of both material and immaterial substances. Additionally, Bonnet believed there was a fiber in the brain responsible for every idea and that when combined in bundles, these fibers formed complex ideas. To Bonnet, experiencing a sensation or a memory occurred when these fibers vibrated to a greater or lesser degree {1}. Charles Bonnet Syndrome, which was first observed by Bonnet in his grandfather, is a form of visual hallucination that occurs in people with vision problems. Bonnet’s grandfather was reported to have seen patterns, figures, birds and buildings which did not exist, despite being nearly blind {2}.


Sources:
{1} http://www.nndb.com/people/040/000100737/
{2} http://www.rnib.org.uk/eyehealth/eyeconditions/conditionsac/Pages/charles_bonnet.aspx

Bonnet's patient in 1788 with Cotard's delusion (discussed on Carter, p 99)
Cotard's delusion is when one believes oneself to be dead. The earliest reported example from 1788 is of an elderly woman who insisted to be buried and in her shroud. Her daughter, who take care of her, refused at first but eventually granted her mother’s wish and had her placed in her coffin. The woman even complained about the color of her shroud while she was inside the coffin. Once she fell asleep, her daughter had servants remove her from the coffin and place her in her bed. She woke up, furious that she was not in her coffin, and demanded to be put in the coffin again. They reached a compromise and she was put in the coffin, but it was not buried. After several weeks, the woman’s strange behavior ceased.

Boswell, James (1740-1795)

James Boswell
James Boswell

James Boswell

Charles Bonnet's patient in 1788 with Cotard's delusion (discussed on Carter, p 99)
Cotard's delusion is when one believes oneself to be dead. The earliest reported example from 1788 is of an elderly woman who insisted to be buried and in her shroud. Her daughter, who take care of her, refused at first but eventually granted her mother’s wish and had her placed in her coffin. The woman even complained about the color of her shroud while she was inside the coffin. Once she fell asleep, her daughter had servants remove her from the coffin and place her in her bed. She woke up, furious that she was not in her coffin, and demanded to be put in the coffin again. They reached a compromise and she was put in the coffin, but it was not buried. After several weeks, the woman’s strange behavior ceased.
Back to Top

Hume, David (1711 - 1776)
David Hume, originally David Home, is most commonly known as one of the great philosophers, essayists and historians of the eighteenth century. Hume was brought up by his widowed mother and attended the University of Edinburgh at the age of twelve alongside his older brother where he studied Latin, Greek, philosophy, and poetry. While his family was inclined to believe he was best suited as a lawyer, Hume, on the other hand, found interests in "the pursuits of philosophy and general learning" (My Own Life, Hume). After finding little satisfaction in the business world, Hume devoted his time to the studies of philosophy and politics. Between the years of 1746 and 1748, Hume traveled outside of England and published what is now known as "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding." Three years later he published another well known work, "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals." Despite failing twice to obtain the Chair of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh in 1744 and 1751, Hume was appointed librarian at the Advocates' Library where he received low wages but gained invaluable access to numerous literary works and facilities. Arguably so, it was during his years as a librarian that Hume achieved his greatest success as a writer. Due to the success of his essays concerning politics and economics, Hume turned his attention to writing history. Between 1752 and 1764, Hume published five volumes collectively known as the"History of England," which proved to not only be his most successful writing, but also the most well-received literary work of the time in England. After publishing many more essays, Hume eventually retired to a small house in Edinburgh in late 1768. The Spring of 1775 brought Hume an illness that would eventually lead to his quick but painless death in 1776, but not before publishing an autobiography entitled "My Own Life."

Brown, John
John Brown was a successful author and poet during the eighteenth century. He wrote works including an Estimate of the Manner and Principles of the Times, The Cure of Saul, and An Essay on Satire. Brown ran in large political circles, including one led by Bishop William Warburton who was an advisor and defender of the Pope. Brown was described by witness to be an easy going and entertaining man; however, this was soon proven not the case. In 1766, John Brown committed suicide by slitting his throat and bleeding out; according to witnesses, Brown began to go crazy during his final days and thus he abruptly ended his life. Modern day interpretations look back on John Brown and view him as being a depressed individual who could no longer bear the strain of living.

Sources:
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/hume.html
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hume/
http://www.iep.utm.edu/humelife/#H1
http://www.biography.com/articles/David-Hume-9346827
{1} “Coroner's Report” __Patterns of Madness: A Reader__. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 152-155.
Back to Top

E.L.-Case XXIII(Haslam ).
Patient E.L. was admitted into Bedlam as an incurable patient at age 78. He was formely in the navy and had been expecting a promotion but it was not granted to him. His mental illness is suspected to stem from the distress of not receiving that promotion and his admission into the hospital was ordered by someone of higher rank who had gone through a great deal of trouble regarding E.L. and his illness. During Haslam’s time observing this man, he behaved in a very gentlemanly manner but claimed himself highness with the following titles: “God’s King, Holy Ghost, Admiral and Physician.” He didn’t interact with the other inmates but instead he read and wrote for his enjoyment. He wrote letters that described the directions for his release from Bedlam to the others in the madhouse. E.L. died from what Haslam describes as “old age” and was observed two days after his death. Haslam observed that “there was a large quantity of water between the different membranes […] and that the veins acted almost as if they were filled with air.” Other than that, E.L.’s brain consistency appeared regular upon dissection.

E.T.
John Haslam, a noted apothecary at Bethlem Royal Hospital from 1795 until 1815 {1}, spoke about a patient he called E.T. in his compilation of patients in Bedlam {2}. E.T. suffered from many symptoms, most involving tearing up anything within reach and eating inedible objects, but was apparently aware of his condition; when accused of “mischief” he blamed the attendants for not restraining him {2}. In regards to his symptoms of tearing up objects, E.T. often invited new patients into his room and would tear up their clothes, and would also tear up his cell floor {2}. In terms of ingestion, E.T. had much more varied exploits. He could use his feet to take hats off of people’s heads so that he might eat them, and he might eat both his dinner and the wooden bowl that contained it {2}. By far his strangest exploit occurred when E.T. bit off the testicles of a living cat that belonged to someone who had offended him {2}. E.T. was admitted to Bethlem on July 23, 1796, where he remained until his death from a neck tumor on February 17, 1798 {2}.

Sources:
{1} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.
{2} John Haslam. Observations on madness and melancholy... pg. 147.
Back to Top Gall,Franz Joseph
Franz Joseph Gall, the founder of phrenology, began his intellectual curiosity of medicine under the study of J. Hermann. He later moved to Vienna to set up his own practice but his focus was not on his work. He began to research the idea that all physical skills and talents had external markers and identifiers. This later became solely focused on the external appearance of the skull. He created a very controversial and popular science out of phrenology. Later in 1802, when the government shut down his teachings because they were considered a threat to religion, his celebrity only increased. He then traveled and gave lectures throughout Germany, and in 1807 he settled down and set up a practice in Paris. After settling down, he published several volumes about his work some were co-authored with J.C. Spurzheim whom he traveled with. He was later denied entry to the Academy of Sciences in Pares, and died in 1828 after having a seizure.

Sources:
http://www.phrenology.com/franzjosephgall.html

Back to the Top

George III
George III was the King of England, and was born George William Frederick on June 4, 1738
We Told You So - worldpress.com
We Told You So - worldpress.com
and died on January 29, 1820. He reigned from October 25,1760 until his death {2}. He is best known to Americans as the King who was the cause of the American Revolution. Throughout much of Georges later life, 1800 and after, he had many recurring bouts of mental illness {1}. It is not known what caused the illness but speculation has been from arsenic or another heavy metal poising, the blood illness porphyria, a milder form of porphyria called varigate porphya, or just some episodes of mania {1}{Beveridge 20}. He had five different bouts of mental illness that caused him to become very agitated at everything and also caused him to rant about random topics {1}. He managed to recover after the first four times it happened to him, however the last time when he came down with the illness, it left him blind, and crazy {Beveridge 23,31}. It was bad enough that parliament had a regent installed to rule for him the rest of his life. He was well loved as a ruler in England because he was not corrupt, and he was still loved after he went mad{1}.

Carter, Rita
Rita Carter is a science writer who specializes in exploring the brain and consciousness {1}. Apart from writing her books she contributes regularly to the
external image rita.carter.jpg
external image rita.carter.jpg
Independent, New Scientist, Daily Mail and Telegraph. She also lectures and broadcasts on the brain. For her contributions to medical journalism she was awarded the Medical Journalists' Association prize twice {2}.
Rita Carter was born in Essex and trained as a journalist in London , where she spent five years as an anchor of the London nightly news program "Thames News"
Carter is a stanch believer in determinism, holding that freewill is an illusion. She has been quoted as saying that the illusion of free will "is deeply wired into the brain as a set of mechanisms which automatically create the sense of self/ subjectivity and agency that makes it feel as though we decide what our acts will be rather than merely respond to stimuli.
lifeboat.com/ ex/bios.rita.carter

Sources:
{1} http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/cheyne_george.htm

Cowper, William (1731-1800)


external image 12630-004-0E908F3A.jpg
external image 12630-004-0E908F3A.jpg
Cowper was a man who in 1763 desired a job with the House of Lords in the UK. He became so anxious about obtaining the position that he deteriorated into asuicidal and withdrawn state. For a period of over 18 months he was confined in a private madhouse run by Dr. Nathaniel Cotton. Cowper became so delusional that he began hearing voices in his sleep which finally put him over the edge in the minds of his overseers. He then spent the rest of his life waiting for his own death thinking he was damned.

Cullen, William (1710-1790)
William Cullen, 1710 - 1790. Chemist and physician - National Galleries of Scotland
William Cullen, 1710 - 1790. Chemist and physician - National Galleries of Scotland

Sources:
{1} Patterns of Madness (page 194)

George Cheyne (1671- 1743)
According to Allan Ingram, George Cheyne was a Scottish physician who practiced in London and Bath (Ingram 83).
George Cheyne - viartis.net
George Cheyne - viartis.net

George Cheyne - viartis.net
His most notable work was on diet and hygiene. His works include An Essay of Health Long Life (1724), The Natural Method of Curing (1742), and P hilosophical Principles of Natural Religion, containing the Elements of Natural Philosophy, and the Proofs for Natural Religion, arising from them {1} . However his most famous work was The English Malady, which was about his own experiences, was written when he was obese suffering from mental as well as a physical illness (Ingram 83). He describes how he stopped drinking alcohol, and ate only milk and vegetables, and became healthy, losing much weight {1} . He also gave the impression that the body was made up like a series of hydraulic pumps and tubes (Ingram 83). His recommendation for treating illnesses both physical and mental, was to restrict the flow of liquid or increase it on a case by case basis. He also believed that people could make themselves better by simply eating correctly (Ingram 84).

Esquirol, Jean-Étienne Dominique (1772-1840)

Esquirol was born in Toulouse, France and completed his education at Montpellier. He eventually established his own private asylum in 1801, and was regarded as one of the best institution in Paris. In 1805 he published The passions considered as causes, symptoms and means of cure in cases, which was a thesis of his. In this literature, he wrote how insanity does not completely affect one's reason and logic and it can be cured. Eventually he become the "medecin ordinaire" of the Salpetriere Hospital. In 1817 Esquirol conducted one of the first formal teachings of psychiatry in France in the hall of the Salpetriere Hospitol. in 1822 he became the inspector general of medical faculties of France and then the director of the Charenton Hospice. Finally, in 1835 he become was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Sources:
{1} http://www.faqs.org/health/bios/62/Giovanni-Battista-Morgagni.html
{2} http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi358.htm
Back to Top

Mackenzie, Henry
Henry Mackenzie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in August 1745, around the time Prince Charles invaded Scotland. His mother’s name was Margaret and his father, Josiah Mackenzie, was a physician and authored many medical and literary essays. He attended high school and university in Edinburgh and studied law under Mr. Inglis of Redhall. In 1765, Mackenzie went to London to study the modes of English Exchequer practice. He then returned to Edinburgh and became partner and then successor to Mr. Inglis for the office of attorney to the crown. Mackenzie’s first work was The Man of Feeling, which was published in 1771. Though popular with the public, Mackenzie decided to keep his name as the author anonymous which lead to a Mr. Eccles of Bath claiming to be its author, then being found as a fraud after the publishers opposed the claim. As a boy, Mackenzie was an assistant at tea-drinkings, where he became acquainted with Hume and many other literary and philosophical figures. Man of the World, published by Mackenzie as a sequel to Man of Feeling, demonstrated the life of a man who had no sensibility as opposed to Harley's character in Man of Feeling; Julia de Roubigne was later published as the next book to be read after Man of the World.Mr. Mackenzie was also a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Aside form his two major novels, Mackenzie also wrote many political pamphlets against the liberal principles growing in his country and also wrote dramatic poetry and tragedy novel titled the Prince of Tunis, a dramatic piece called The Shipwreck or Fatal Curiousity, and two comedies titled Force of Fashion, and the White Hypocrite, as well as other titles. However, many of Mackenzie’s pieces were unsuccessful because of the lack of strong characters.The Mirror Club was formed in 1777-1778 as a way for members of Scottish society to discuss literary matters; it published a series of papers which upon republication earned a large revenue -- one hundred pounds of the income were donated to the Orphan Hospital. Mackenzie never became a full time writer, and after he published all of his works in eight volumes in 1808, his writing took a backseat to his career. His employment with the Royal Society took up all of his time and he no longer could spare any attention for literature. He remained very healthy due to his active life style and eventually died on January 14, 1831.


Roberts, Henry (1721-1745)
In 1739, Henry Roberts was to be giving money and property which had been under the control of trustees as he grew up as an orphan. The trustees mishandled the money, and in order to avoid charges, they argued that Mr. Roberts was an idiot or fool (the modern day equivalent to being mentally incompetent). Under the law, anyone proven to be suffering of idiocy, can not be trusted with money or property. Trials followed those accusations during which Mr. Roberts was often asked difficult questions and cut-off before he could even attempt an educated response. Amongst all this, he was accused of using winks and hand signals given by his attorney to answer questions during his trials. They argued that he couldn't even write or count money while not giving him the proper chances to prove himself. In the end of his trials, the verdict of Roberts being a fool was given by eight individuals after they were deprived of sleep and had already told the judge that they thought Roberts might possibly be of a sound mind. Henry Roberts died in poverty in 1745 after being prescribed vomiting for what was then described as a hickough.

Sources:
{1} “Anonymous” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 101-106.

Hippocrates Asclepiades
Hippocrates Asclepiades
Hippocrates Asclepiades

Born "during the end of the fifth century B.C.E." this physician published "the oldest surviving complete medical books:" The Hippocratic Corpus. This "collection of roughly seventy works" set the framework for modern medicine. There are books "directed toward the physician, some for the pharmacist, some for the professional physician, and some...directed more at the layman." Hippocrates influenced many facets of medicine including medical ethics, philosophy, experimentation, and application. The most prevalent concept he gave discussed in these papers for the purpose of 18th century medicine was the four humors, discussed in many medical texts of the period {1}

Sources:
{1} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.
{2} picture from http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/~gregh/talks-historicalfiction.htm

Sources:
{1} http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/
Back to Top

J.A.-CaseXV (Haslam )
J.A. was first admitted into the madhouse at age 42 in 1795 when he began conceiving himself to be royalty. Haslam supposed that this sudden attacked was spurred on one day while he worked outside without his head covered. He was somewhat educated but nothing above the ordinary, but he swore he knew many languages and was fluent at all of them and had traveled France with William the Conquerer. Along with his delusions, he had a hot temper which lead to arguments with nearly everyone with whom he spoke. He fits left him after some time and he was released from the hospital in 1796 but after a court appearance regarding his domestic belongings, he relasped not more than six weeks after he had been released. He then suffered what Haslam describes as a stroke and had a speech impediment. After his relapse, his condition worsened and he eventually lost his appetite resulting in his death. After death, John Haslam dissected his brain and found it to be slightly firmer in consistency, with a brown blotch on the right hemisphere of his brain(further supporting the chance that he suffered from a stroke).

James Boswell (1740-1795)external image moz-screenshot-3.png
James Boswell
James Boswell

James Boswell was born in Edinburgh, Scottland on October 29, 1740 to a well-connected, ambitious family. He was pressured by his father, Alexander Boswell, advocate and laird of Auchinleck in Ayrshire, to study law {1}. Once he passed his trials in civil law his father allowed him to go to London to seek a commission. On his second visit to London, at age 22, Boswell was met Samuel Johnson, who he became close friends with {1}. Johnson convinced Boswell that joining the guards was not practical, so he listened to his father and became a lawyer, at the same time writing a biography of Samuel Johnson (The Life of Johnson of Samuel Johnson, published in two volumes in May, 1971) {1}. He was a great writer and took pride in his writing, but saw himself as a failure and became depressed. He wrote the Hypochondriak series of essays for the London Magazine, which was considered writing- as-therapy. "He wrote as a hypochondriak, but anonymously.... his mask allowed him the freedom to reveal details of himself, that would otherwise have been considered inappropriate" {3}. The 20th-century publication of his journals proved him to be also one of the world’s greatest diarists {2}.

Sources:
{1} http://www.classic-literature.co.uk/scottish-authors/james-boswell/james-boswell-biography.asp
{2} http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/74986/James-Boswell
{3} “James Boswell (1740-95).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 123-128.


Sources:
{1} http://boston1775.blogspot.com/2007/03/alexander-cruden-early-case-of-asperger.html
{2} “Alexander Cruden (1701-70).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 93-97.

J.C Case XXII- J.C. **Haslam**
J.C was admitted to the hospital at the age of fifty in 1796. He said his diesease was caused by stress and the lack of sleep. He was fairly sane, except for the fact that he he injured himself by cutting his throat. After this incident, he become severely depressed and stopped talking. He eventually died in the hospital and after inspection, they found that his brain matter was slightly inflamed.

Sources:
{1} Bedlam: London and Its Mad by , Simon & Schuster, 2008
{2} http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk-Inside Bedlam
{3} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monro_family_(physicians)

James Tilly Matthews (1770–1815)
James Tilly Matthews is believed to be the first "documented case of paranoid schizophrenia." On January 28, 1797, after sending letters to Lord Liverpool accusing him of treason and an outburst at the Public Gallery, he was admitted airloom.gifto Bedlam psychiatric hospital. His family members did not believe he was insane and requested he be released. Some physicians agreed with the relatives, but those who worked at Bedlam, notably John Haslam, believed otherwise. Haslam, an apothecary at Bedlam, published Illustrations of Madness in 1810. The book detailed his accounts with Matthews during his stay at Bedlam. According to Haslam, Matthews believed a group of criminals were corresponding with him through an “air loom”. Matthews claimed the criminals were able to use the loom to torment and sometimes control him.
external image moz-screenshot.png
Sources:
{1} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Tilly_Matthews
{2} http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/James_Tilly_Matthews
{3} Haslam, J. Illustrations of Madness (1810)
{4} http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/James_Tilly_Matthews

Case XIV- J.C. (Haslam )
Alexander Cruden was a very religious man, he wrote an early concordance of the King James bible. Doctors did not attribute his madness to his extreme faith, and they claim the two only became linked in the later stages of his condition. Alexander Cruden, or ‘Mr. C’, served as a chaplain for the Payne family. It can be said that Mr. C’s questionable actions raised the concerns of many people who later had him institutionalized. For example, Mr. C paid many visits to Mr. Payne’s widow that could be classified as unwanted by her. Mr. C’s neighbors called to have him institutionalized, and he attempted to bring about legal actions to those responsible for admitting him. The owners of the mad house all agreed that Roberts always acted very much like a gentlemen when he was in their care.

Sources:
{1} http://boston1775.blogspot.com/2007/03/alexander-cruden-early-case-of-asperger.html
{2} “Alexander Cruden (1701-70).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 93-97.

J.C Case XXII- J.C. Haslam
J.C was admitted to the hospital at the age of fifty in 1796. He said his diesease was caused by stress and the lack of sleep. He was fairly sane, except for the fact that he he injured himself by cutting his throat. After this incident, he become severely depressed and stopped talking. He eventually died in the hospital and after inspection, they found that his brain matter was slightly inflamed.

Sources:
{1} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 130-131.

Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840)
Esquirol was born in Toulouse, France and completed his education at Montpellier. He eventually established his own private asylum in 1801, and was regarded as one of the best institution in Paris. In 1805 he published The passions considered as causes, symptoms and means of cure in cases, which was a thesis of his. In this literature, he wrote how insanity does not completely affect one's reason and logic and it can be cured. Eventually he become the "medecin ordinaire" of the Salpetriere Hospital. In 1817 Esquirol conducted one of the first formal teachings of psychiatry in France in the hall of the Salpetriere Hospitol. in 1822 he became the inspector general of medical faculties of France and then the director of the Charenton Hospice. Finally, in 1835 he become was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Sources:
{1} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-%C3%89tienne_Dominique_Esquirol

Joanna Southcott (1750-1814)
Joanna Southcott was born in Devon England and raised with strong religious convictions. In 1792, she claimed that the Lord visited her, and that she is the Woman of the Apocalypse from the prophecy in Revelation. Southcott began to prophesy of the Apocalypse including the return of Jesus and eminent war of nations. She wrote, sealed, and sold these prophecies to her amounting followers that eventually grew greater than 100,000. At the age of 64, Southcott claimed of an immaculate conception in which she carried a son, Shiloh. This child “was to rule all nations with an iron rod. And her son was taken up to God and to his throne,” as foretold in Revelation. Many prepared to receive the child, and after a yearlong pregnancy, Southcott died without giving birth. Upon examination, doctors found no evidence of a child; however, her followers believed that before her death, Shiloh was born in spirit form. Many considered her insane, but she was never treated nor confined.

Sources: {1} “Joanna Southcott (1750-1814).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.


John Haslam
external image JohnHaslam.jpg John Haslam was appointed to the position of Bethlem's apothecary in 1795 and was noted for his intellect and enthusiasm on the job. As apothecary, he delivered the inmates their medicines daily and was therefore able to record the many different behaviors of the inmates. His contributions to the book Patterns of Madness mostly include detailed descriptions of the most peculiar illness that occurred within the walls of Bethlem. Due to his closeness to the mentally insane, he provides perhaps some of the most humane and modern techniques on how to treat the mentally ill in contrast to the current methodologies suggested by practitioners such as Harper. Haslam's medical curiosities lead him to the dissections of the brain after the death of a patient. The date along with the state of the brain were also logged by Haslam for each of his case studies at Bethlem giving the audience a very descriptive record on the inner parts of an unstable brain. John Haslam introduced an energetic look on the practices involving the insane and was drawn to record some of the most bizarre stories. After his publication on the testimonies of James Tilly Matthews, he was dismissed from his post by the House of Commons in 1816 for its controversial allegations.

Sources:
{1} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.
{2} picture from http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/~gregh/talks-historicalfiction.htm


John Locke
John Locke was an English philosopher and writer during the 17th century. His ideas and thoughts have been published in many books and have been the topic of many scholars’ conversations for years. He was born August 29, 1632 in Somerset, England to parents John Locke and Agnes Keene who both died when Locke was extremely young. When Locke was fifteen he was sent away to the famous Westminster School in London where he began to take in interest in philosophy. When he graduated from Westminster he was admitted to Oxford University. During his time at Oxford he became aggravated by the curriculum. He thought the works from modern day philosophers was much more interesting than the classics that were being taught. He graduated Oxford with two bachelor’s degrees (one in medicine) and a masters degree. Locke became very interested in the body and in medicine and took a job as a personal physician for Lord Ashley Cooper. During this time Locke was introduced to the world of government and politics. During this time Locke began to work on his most famous book “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” which was heavily influenced by people such as Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes. The book was also heavily influenced by Locke’s friends. Along with An Essay Concerning Human Understanding some of Locke’s other major works include: “A Letter Concerning Toleration”, “Some Thoughts Concerning Education”, and “Two Treatises of Government”. These works exhibited Locke’s empiricist and revolutionary views along with showing Locke’s views toward the government. His works talk about many topics such as religious toleration, value of personal property, and “the self” and its existence. Locke was under suspicion for being involved with a plot to assassinate King Charles II. And for this reason exiled himself to the Netherlands and did not return to England until after the Glorious Revolution. After he returned from exile he did most of his publishing. After over twenty years of working on it, Locke finally published his book An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Locke died fourteen years later on October 28, 1704 in Essex, England at the age of 72.

John Hill(1714-1775)
According to Allan Ingram, Sir John Hill was one more of the active during the 18th century. He practiced as a apothecary, but was a better known writer. As the publisher of the London Daily Advertiser, which ran articles on a variety of subjects, Hill was able to become extremely rich. Hill, a impressive botanist, wrote two books on how to use plants and herbs to lead a healthy life. He focused on hypochondria, and developed new medicine for mental illness. However, Hill was also noted to be really irritating and arrogant.


John Monro (1715-1791)
John Monro, eldest son to James Monro, worked at Bethlem Royal Hospital. He was educated
John Monro (1715-1791), Oil on canvas by Nathaniel Dance, 1769. © Royal College of Physicians of London.
John Monro (1715-1791), Oil on canvas by Nathaniel Dance, 1769. © Royal College of Physicians of London.
at Merchant Taylors’ School and on July 24, 1751 was appointed joint physician at Bethlem with father. His father died a year later and he became the sole physician. During his tenure at Bethlem, Monro wrote “Remarks on Dr. Battie’s Treatise on Madness,” one of his few works. It was written in response to Battie’s criticism of Bethlem physicians and their lack of sharing information about their medical practices with others in the profession. In 1787, he appointed his son, Thomas Monro, to be his assistant and eventually retired.

Sources:
{1} Nicholls, C. S., and May Le. "Monro, John." The Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford [England]: Oxford UP, 1993. Print.

John Wesley (1703-1791)
He was a physician who excelled in the research of electrical and natural cures to all diseases and mental states. He sought to find cures that could be accessible to the common man cheaply and easily. He greatly philosophized the origin of disease in itself, which he thought to be the result of man's rebellion against the sovereign of heaven and earth. He also believed that we were given the tools to relieve ourselves of these illnesses which he experimented with most of his life. His treatments mostly included a cold bath, quicksilver, or electricity.

Sources:
{1} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998.

John Woodward (1665-1728) Case IX- J.C. (Haslam)
John_Woodward.jpg
John Woodward
John Woodward was mostly known for being a naturalist and his extensive work with fossils (according to Wikipedia {1}), but he was also a physician and a member of the Royal Society . What he did differently from other physicians/psychologists in the eighteenth century was his attention to detail in taking case histories (including the patient's parents' illnesses) and how he recorded his patient's description of their pains and symptoms as truth (rather than assuming their interpretation is clouded by their mental illness). In one of his case histories of a Mrs. Cornforth, Woodward wrote descriptions of how she "gave the Particulars of what befel her in the Fit", and what she thought was happening in her body (for example, she describes feeling fluid move up from the area of pain in her back to the shoulders, neck and head, stretching the blood vessels in the head).

Sources:
{1}
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Woodward_(naturalist)
{2} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 63-68.
{3} Picture from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/John_Woodward.jpg
Back to Top

Immanuel Kant
Kant, a German philosopher, expressed great interest in moral philosophy and in epistemology. His Categorical Imperative (CI) is the standard of rationality; all moral violations are in violation of the CI, and thus categorized as irrational. According to Robert Johnson at Stanford University, Kant reason's that practicality goes beyond human susceptibility to passion. In his The Metaphysics of Morals, he outlines the ethical obligations. Also, being a virtuous, as Kant argues, doesn't precisely guarantee happiness, and yet even conflict with these progressions. Kant also calls for respect for all persons and things of absolute worth. His formulas, The Autonomy and The King of Ends, are explanations for the rational will and morality of the time. He also was in agreement with his fellow 18th century philosopher David Hume; causation indicates universal regularities. Will, to Kant, operates according to universal laws, not natural laws such as biological and physiological.Johnson also goes on to say that Kant's volumes of Groundwork , ultimately established his argument for the supposed bounded nature of human kind to its moral law and autonomy. However, there are many irregularities and flaws to his statements, therefore his works aren't held in such high regard.

Sources:
{1} http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/

M.L. Case XX- (Haslam)
According to John Haslam, M.L. was a thirty-eight year old woman admitted on June 11, 1796. The illness had occurred right after her husband's death. The woman thought that the overseers of the parish wanted to kill her, but then changed to believing that they wanted to fight to posses her. She also believed that a young man he loved stayed with her each night even though the man was dead. Finally she believed that every one was plotting to kill her. She eventually died of a fever. The brain autopsy showed little difference from a healthy brain. This is an example of how external stimuli greatly affected the mental health of some patients in the eighteenth century.

Sources:
{1} John Haslam (1764-1844). Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 198.

Mary Toft
Mary_toft_1726.jpgDuring the early 18th century, Mary Toft was a servant about to give birth, but after a miscarriage, she decided to tell a false story that she gave birth to rabbits, and animal she was very fond of. She first contacted a local John Howard, who to Mary's surprise believed her and contacted other noteworthy surgeons of the time to give their input including King George I's own personal surgeons Nathanael St. Andre and Samuel Molyneux. In an interview with these two surgeons, Mary told them that she had a, "... a strong craving for rabbit meat, she often dreamed of rabbits, and spent much time chasing them in the garden." {1} Both surgeons believed Mary was telling the truth and ran some tests such as taking the lung of rabbit she gave birth to and putting it in water, and since the lung was able to float in water, they concluded it was possible to give birth to rabbits. After this, Mary was sent to London for further tests and interviews where she finally cracked under the pressure of fortune and fame and told the truth that she was lying. She was then imprisoned by the British government for being a fraud but was released four months later. The reason surgeons and doctors were able to believe Mary's story was because the 18th century mind believed in maternal impressions where a pregnant woman's experiences are directly imprinted on her unborn child. This theory helped explain a lot of birth defects that occurred, thus Mary's story of craving rabbits and chasing them seemed plausible to her possible given birth to rabbits.

Sources:
{1} Hunterian, Coll. "The Curious Case of Mary Toft". University of Glasgow. March 30, 2010 <http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/aug2009.html>.
{2} “John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 156-163.
{3} Picture from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1034653&blobtype=
Back to Top

Nicholas Robinson (1697-1775)
Nicholas Robinson went to school to learn about medicine in Rheims but practiced and taught in London. He is known as one of the most "energetic and enthusiastic writer and practitioner in the 18th century." He was heavily influenced by Thomas Willis and his "Animal Spirits". Robinson eventually defines the brain and its activities in relation to the nervous system and the rest of the body. He defines this as "Machinulau." Robinson took madness seriously and for this reason, Robinson believed madness was very much apart of ones body and the body was its origin. Because Robinson saw the body as the origin of madness, his treatments for madness were very "ferocious" and hands on. He saw vomiting, excessive bleeding, high fever, and other extreme methods as the only way to truly treat madness.

Sources:
{1} "Richard Mead." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Mar. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371450/Richard-Mead>.
{2} "
Dr. Richard Mead and his Remedy for the Bite of a Mad Dog" PEDIATRICS Vol. 47 No. 1 January 1971, pp. 80
<
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/1/80>.
{3} "
Richard Mead." Wikipedia. 2010. Last edited: 6 Jan. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371450/Richard-Mead>.

George Trosse
George Torsse was a puritan born to wealthy parents. He was admitted into a private madhouse on three separate occasions. Trosse decided after he was released after his third visit to the mad house that he would turn his life in a spiritual direction. Although he lived his early adult life in a way that was not in accordance with the church. He later accepted an offer and became a minister, entering a career that lasted over fifty years. He wrote many selections describing his time in the mad house, and wrote an autobiography called "The life of the Reverend Mr. George Trosse."


“George Trosse (1631-1713).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 156-163.

Urbane Metcalf
Urbane Metcalf was a patient at Bethlem Royal Hospital twice, once in 1804 until 1806, and once from 1817 until 1818. Metcalf believed he was the heir to the Danish throne, although his second stay in Bethlem apparently cured him of the belief, and left him rather depressed (1). However, Metcalf’s main contribution to the studies of the insane was not as a patient, but as an activist (2). In between Metcalf’s two stays in Bethlem, the hospital was moved to another location, and Metcalf’s second stay allowed him to compare the new Bethlem to the old. Metcalf states clearly that the new Bedlam was preferable to the old, but also protested that despite the better accommodations, the treatment by the staff at Bethlem towards the patients needed great reform (1). In the end, Metcalf stated that the principles of Bethlem were “good in principle” but “departed from in practice by the staff” (3).

Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715)
Nicolas Malebranche was a French philosopher born in Paris, France who had a significant influence on philosophy in the eighteenth-century. He studied theology and later became a follower of Cartesian principles. In 1673, he published De la Recherche de la Vérité which, among other things, analyzed the nature of the human mind. The overall objective of his Book was to argue that God exist in everything and that the human mind cannot control what it does not understand. For example, he believed that animal spirits were the force that moved body parts, but no one knew exactly how animal spirits worked. Therefore, it was the will of God, not the person, which controlled the animal spirits. Some philosophers, such as Hume, heavily disagreed and often criticized Malebranche; in particular, his belief in God’s omnipresence in every minute action performed by the body and mind. Locke also dismisses much of Malebranche’s philosophy in his book Examination of P. Malebranche's Opinion; claiming most of his hypotheses are “defective”, “inconsistent”, and “unintelligible”. However, despite such criticisms Malebranche’s work was very well known in eighteenth-century Britain and garnered support from other popular eighteenth-century writers such as Isaac Watts, a prolific hymnal writer who readily agreed with Malebranche’s philosophy.

Sources:
{1} Benham, William. "Malebranche, Nicolas." The Dictionary of Religion: An Encyclopaedia of Christian and Other Telisious Doctrines, Denominations, Sects, Heresies, Eccles Iastical Terms. History, Biography, Etc, Etc. S.l.]: Cassell, [..]. 659-60. Print.
{2} Locke, John. "Examination of P. Malebranche's Opinion." The Works of John Locke, in Nine Volumes. Vol. 8. London: Printed for C. and J. Rivington [etc.], 1824. 210-12. Print.
{3} Yolton, John W. Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth-century Britain. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1983. Print.

Niobe
Niobe in Greek mythology "was the queen of Thebes(the principle city in Boetia)." Niobe had fourteen children and after mocking Leto--the daughter of titans--for having only two children, had all of her children killed by Leto's children, Apollo and Artemis. After hearing of this Niobe's husband, Amphion, either committed suicide or was killed by Apollo. The character of Niobe is seen as a symbol of "eternal mourning."


06e115daed4dcc95a07b2dd85bb5.jpg
Pagans worshipping a statue of Niobe. Source: http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/obf_images/43/e3/06e115daed4dcc95a07b2dd85bb5.jpg

Sources:
{1} http://www.pantheon.org/articles/n/niobe.html
Back to Top


Pargeter Case IA

In this case study, Pargeter studies a farmer from the countryside whose friends had reluctantly put him into a madhouse because they had nothing else to do with him. He had no previous signs of mental illness and his friends noted him as once a cheerful and lively man, but William Pargeter witnessed him in a Melancholy and very distressed state of being. Symptoms also included having "inconsistent conversation" and "deeply concerned about his future state". According to his history, his mental illness originated after his move from the Church to the Methodists. He made this move because he was scolded by a clergyman in front of the congregation and was so upset by this occurrence that he felt it necessary to leave the Church only to join the Methodists. Pargeter never explicitly says that this is the cause of his illness, but he notes the convenience of his move to the Methodist Church and the time his mental illness was first prevalent.


Sources:
{1} "William Pargeter (1760-1810).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 181.

Pargeter Case IIA
William Pargeter describes a young woman for whom he was asked to care. This young woman lived in the countryside and could always be found sitting up in bed, wrapped in blankets, with several books on hand. Pargeter admits to finding no cause for her continued presence in bed, until one day he entered to find her in the middle of a religious passion. She repeatedly cried out how much she loved Christ and asked Pargeter to pray with her. Pargeter later states that he found she had often been visited by a Methodist man, a denomination of which Pargeter has a very low opinion, and once the visits were stopped, the young woman was better and able to leave her bed.


Sources:
{1} Pargeter, William. Observations on Maniacal Disorders. 1792, pp. 28-34.

Pargeter Case IB
Pargeter relates the story of a patient he had when he was still a pupil at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. He was asked to visit the man in his home, and upon arrival found the entire neighborhood was disturbed by the man’s ravings. Once Pargeter realized that the man was not armed, he left his two attendants outside and rushed in the door to the man’s house. He immediately "caught the eye" of the man, and the man calmed.

Sources:

{1} Pargeter, William. Observations on Maniacal Disorders. 1792, pp. 49-53.

Pargeter Case IIB
Pargeter tells of a young woman who had gone away for some time to visit a friend. When she returned, she started to seem distant, quiet, and contemplative. She was able to have conversation, but did not seem to want to be in a large group. He recommended her leaving her current home and gave her instructions for a new diet and exercise plan, which soon cured her. Pargeter remarks that one who has experience with these types of patients was best suited for these cases.


Sources:
{1} "William Pargeter (1760-1810).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. pg. 183.

Peter Shaw
Peter_Shaw.jpg
Courtesy of the Royal College of Physicians and the National Portrait Gallery

Peter Shaw (1694-1763), became recognized after his production of Pharmacopeia in 1721, which was a collection of medicinal preparations in use at that time. He published many books during his early years, mostly relating to scientific method, chemistry, and medicine. He gave a successful course of lectures in 1731 with experiements and demonstrations; they were repeated the next year because of the apparent success. He devoted the last years of his life to medical pursuits, and wrote "A New Method of Chemisty", which was "the most complete work on practical and theoretical chemistry in existence at the time" (Oldham). He stood out and had a huge effect on sciences in his field in the 18th century.

Sources:
Oldham, Graham. "Peter Shaw". Journal of Chemical Education. 1960. 37 (8) pg. 417.

Back to Top

R.B. Case XXVIII- (Haslam )
R.B. was sixty four years old and admitted himself into Bethlem's apothecary in 1797. He was very noisy and recited Roman and Greek poets while at the same time preached his own importance in literature. The other patients avoided him and he was usually left to talk to himself. He claimed he knew the longitude of the Earth and often attempted to claim the prize that was offered to the man who could calculate it accurately. He also claimed to know how to solve the national debt which only made him more mad. He got almost no sleep after solitary confinement and eventually was unable to form sentences. He became very easily distracted and in a series of days lost the ability to speak and then lost the ability to move his right side. A week later he went into a fit and became comatose and died the next day. When he was opened an unusual amount of water was found in his skull but there was a lack of blood. The grey matter was abnormally soft.

Sources:
{1} John Haslam (1764-1844). Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 201-202.

Richard Baxter (1615-1619)
Baxter was deacon who wrote about his theories on the causes of melancholy in people. He believed that the first cause of melancholy is rooted in the mental illness of one's thought patterns due to inflammation because of the melancholy. The second is due to an insufficient flow of animal and motion spirits throughout the body which creates

Dr. Richard Helsham
Richard Helsham was a well known Dublin Medical doctor who was also the mentor for Dr. Bryan Robinson. In 1711 he became a lecturer of natural philosophy at Trinity College. In 1724 Helsham received a promotion of sorts when he became the institute’s first professor of experimental psychology (1). He was such a prominent physician in Dublin that he was said to be "the most eminent physician of this city and kingdom (2)." His greatest accomplishment was the publishing of his lectures by Bryan Robinson. This book was intended for university students rather than the general public. At the time, it was one of the first books to present scientific discoveries. However, his lectures consisted of a great deal of physics since he was a follower of Newton (3). Even though his book wasn’t primarily psychology, it opened the doors to further and more advanced studying of the mind.

Sources:
(1)- http://iopscience.iop.org/0143-0807/21/3/702?ejredirect=migration
(2)- http://www.libraryireland.com/biography/RichardHelsham.php
(3)- http://www.tcd.ie/Physics/history/helsham/


Dr. Richard Mead
Richard Mead (1673-1754)Oil on canvas, unknown artist, c. 1749 © Royal College of Physicians of London
Richard Mead (1673-1754)Oil on canvas, unknown artist, c. 1749 © Royal College of Physicians of London

Dr. Mead was born on August 11, 1673 in London and is considered “Perhaps the best known English physician of the first half of the eighteenth century.” While he was growing up he studied in Utrecht for three years and later moved on to study in Leiden to pursue his career as a physician. Once he graduated, he began a pretty successful practice but it was not until 1703 when he entered the royal society. One of his most important contributions as a member of the society was a paper he wrote on the parasitic nature of scabies. Even though he was extremely successful, it was not until 1714 when he really got his big break. Upon the death of the famed physician John Radcliffe, Mead officially became the physician of choice for some of the most powerful people in England including Queen Anne, King George I, King George II, Isaac Newton amongst several others. Dr. Mead died on February 16. 1754.

Sources:
{1} "Richard Mead." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Mar. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371450/Richard-Mead>.
{2} "
Dr. Richard Mead and his Remedy for the Bite of a Mad Dog" PEDIATRICS Vol. 47 No. 1 January 1971, pp. 80
<
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/1/80>.
{3} "
Richard Mead." Wikipedia. 2010. Last edited: 6 Jan. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371450/Richard-Mead>.

Rita Carter
Rita Carter is a science writer who specializes in exploring the brain and consciousness {1}. Apart from writing her books she contributes regularly to theexternal image rita.carter.jpg Independent, New Scientist, Daily Mail and Telegraph. She also lectures and broadcasts on the brain. For her contributions to medical journalism she was awarded the Medical Journalists' Association prize twice {2}.
Rita Carter was born in Essex and trained as a journalist in London , where she spent five years as an anchor of the London nightly news program "Thames News"
Carter is a stanch believer in determinism, holding that freewill is an illusion. She has been quoted as saying that the illusion of free will "is deeply wired into the brain as a set of mechanisms which automatically create the sense of self/ subjectivity and agency that makes it feel as though we decide what our acts will be rather than merely respond to stimuli.
lifeboat.com/ ex/bios.rita.carter
Back to Top

Samuel Bruckshaw (Case XXVII)
Samuel Bruckshaw was a wool dealer who had found himself in a very bad business deal. Through various means, he lost almost everything he owned and caused much public resentment about his business dealings. Samuel was imprisoned in a private madhouse in June of 1770 after being accused of violent actions against a Mr. Langton. Bruckshaw was chained, given little warm food, threatened, and treated with violence during his imprisonment for almost a year (until his release in March of 1771). Upon his release, he began to accuse the Mayor, John Hopkins, and other legal officials of conspiring to ruin and imprison him. In his pamphlet, "One More Proof of the Iniquitous Abuse of Private Madhouses," Bruckshaw explained how he followed proper protocol in conversing with Mr. Langton and the mayor; however, he was still accused of violent actions. Samuel's accusations were dismissed in court and was not compensated for his mistreatment.

Sources:
{1} Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 156-163.

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
The following information is from the Britannica Encyclopedia entry for Samuel Johnson. Johnson was a man of great influence in the late 18th century in England. He was born in Lichfield, Staffordshire He was known as an essayist, critic, and biographer. Throughout his life, Johnson, suffered from many physical ailments, yet he considered by many to be a very successful man. This fact, made his life of great interest to the people of England. Samuel wrote many essays, including the Idler, which was a 104 part series. Johnson wrote the Dictionary of the English Language, which was he completed in 1755. This was, at the time, a great achievement, since it had the greatest scale of any dictionary that had been made to date. Johnson also played a role in the evolution of the romantic novel. Johnson was one of the first writers in the 18th century to being discussing and using the idea of "sensibility" in his writings. This was the foundation of what would become the Romantic Novel.
external image Samuel_Johnson_by_Joshua_Reynolds.jpg

Sources:
{1} "Johnson, Samuel." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica,2010. Web. 14 Apr. 2010 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9108566

{2} https://libwebspace.library.cmu.edu:4430/posner/sp09/subcontents/Johnson.html

Samuel Tuke (1784-1857)
According to Allan Ingram, Samuel Tuke's grandfather, William Tuke, was instrumental in the creation of the Retreat. Samuel Tuke described in his works the Retreats working practices. The practices of the retreat were established and directed by the superintendent, George Jepson, and the Matron, Katherine Jepson. The usual treatments such as bleeding and prescriptions were deemed inefficient in this system. The actual program that worked included exercise, diets, and baths for the inmates. There was no ill treatment unless completely necessary and the Reatreat tried to emphasize a sense of community. Family was central to the practices of the Retreat and Madness was seen as going against the stability of the family.The York Retreat is the most important institution in the period and Samuel Tuke was influential in its standing.

Sources:
{1} “Samuel Tuke.” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 235-245.

Theophile Bonet (1620-1689)
anmpx04x0063.jpg
Source: http://web2.bium.univ-paris5.fr/img/?refbiogr=2550&mod=s

Theophile Bonet, born into a family of physicians, was born in Geneva, but received his medical degree in Bologna in 1643, and returned back to Geneva. He later published Sepulchretum in 1700, which was a collection of autopsies acheived by himself and other colleages. Although he was not awarded for his compilation, it was considered extremely influential for the time. His interest in anatomy was not common for that time, but he had a very dilligent way of learning and reviewing his results. He paved the way for Giovanni Battista Morgagni, an eighteenth century physician, who admired Bonet's work and learned from it.

Sources:
{1} The Journal of the American Medical Association
{2} The American Journal of Pathology
{3} Patterns of Madness (page 168)


Thomas Arnold (1742-1816)

Thomas Arnold was a qualified specialist in medicine and nervous disorders and a physician at many madhouses across England. Thomas Arnold served "as owner of one of the largest private madhouses in the country," during which he meticulously documented and classified the varied types of insanity based on direct observation of symptoms. The scientific nature and broad scope of his research led to publications of two volumes of Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity(1782-86), and "a third, on management of the insane, was published in 1809." In these volumes he explored the many sub-divisions of madness as classified by observation from "'Ideal Insanity,' 'Notional insanity,' 'Phrenetic,' 'Incoherent,' 'Maniacal,' and 'Sensitive.'

Sources:
{1} "Thomas Arnold." Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 171

Thomas Monro (1759-1833)
Thomas Monro was the youngest child of Dr. John Monro. He was educated at Stanmore,
Thomas Monro, Pastel on paper by Henry Monro the elder, c.1810. © Royal College of Physicians of London.
Thomas Monro, Pastel on paper by Henry Monro the elder, c.1810. © Royal College of Physicians of London.
Middlesex and Oriel College, Oxford. After his father’s death he became the physician of Bridewell Royal Hospital and Bethlem Royal Hospital in 1792. He maintained his position until 1816 and then handed it over to his son, Dr. Edward Thomas Monro. In 1816, he issued the pamphlet “Observations of Dr. Thomas Monro” in response to the scrutiny of the treatment of patients at Bethlem. From 1811 to 1812, Monro was the primary physician to King George III, who was mentally ill. He prescribed “hop pillow” for his headaches and the king claimed it eased his pain and helped him sleep.

Sources:
{1} Nicholls, C. S., and May Le. "Monro, Thomas." The Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford [England]: Oxford UP, 1993. Print.
{2} "The Hop Pillow as a Soporific." The Medical Age. A Semi-monthly Journal of Medicine and Surgery. ... Volume I-XXIV, [1883-1906]. Vol. 8. Detroit, Michigan: E.G. Swift, 1883. 449. Print.

Thomas Willis (1621-1675)
Thomas Willis
Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis was born in Wiltshire England on January 27, 1621. He was an english physician, anatomist, and physiologist who also became a leader of the English iatrochemists (he believed that chemistry was the basis of human function, rather than mechanics, as was the main belief of that time). He was the Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy at Oxford and was a physician in London. He is known for his studies of the nervous system and various diseases. Willis used knowledge of chemical interactions in his attempt to explain how the body worked.He also attempted to relate the knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry with findings in neuropathology. Thomas Willis was a professor of natural philosophy at Oxford, England from 1660-1675. He made several assumptions about the brain, including his extension of the concepts proposed by the Roman physician Galen, that the brain was responsible for the flow of animal spirits.

Sources:
{1} Britanica Encyclopedia
{2} http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n06/historia/willis_i.htmBack to Top

William Battie
Dr. William Battie is most well known for his work Treatise on Madness that he wrote in
William Battie, physician to St. Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics, London. © Royal College of Physicians of London
William Battie, physician to St. Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics, London. © Royal College of Physicians of London
1758. During the 18th century, madness was often viewed as a driving internal force of which could only be cured through painful, impractical methods. These impractical methods included invasive techniques such as BLOOD LETTING, as well as homemade draughts, and various purging methods. Battie’s work was some of the most widely used and respected during the 18th century Battie held high offices in two of the most widely used insane asylum clinics in the 18th century, BETHLAM Hospital and ST. LUKE’S Hospital for Lunatiks. He served as a governor to BETHLAM, and was once of the founders of ST. LUKE’S. Battie’s work can be characterized by his belief that the treatment of madness did not necessarily call for all the unconventional methods. Battie believed that madness could be combated by an approach to manage it, rather than curing it, and he felt very strongly about the good complete confinement could do for a patient. He characterized madness into two categories, “Original” and “Consequential”.

Sources:
{1} “William Battie (1703-76) Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 112-119.
{2} http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/192/4/257

William Belcher
William Belcher spent 1778-1795 in a madhouse at Hackney. During his time in the madhouse he slowly began to doubt his own sanity and begun to think about how one becomes insane. After he was released from the madhouse he wrote a pamphlet on his theories on sanity. He wrote about how after he was released he doubted his own sanity after experiencing life in an insane asylum. He then proceeded to explain his theories on how to make the sane become insane and how ambiguous sanity really is.

Sources:
{1} Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 197-198.

Case XIX - W.C. (Haslam )
According to John Haslam, W.C. was a sixty-three year old man, that suffered a depression right after the death of his son. Never before did he have any insanity outbreaks until this event. His symptoms included: not taking sufficient amount of nourishment, thoughts about having important appointments in different places, believing his house was on fire, and also conceiving his dead son was drowning. His life ended when he ran and threw himself on his bed only to expire. The brain showed a large amounts of fluid but besides that it was still healthy. This case is shown as an example of the various mental illnesses that were present in the eighteenth century.

Sources:
{1} Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 197-198.

William Cowper (1731-1800)
Cowper was a man who in 1763 desired a job with the House of Lords in the UK. He became so anxious about obtaining the position that he deteriorated into asuicidal and withdrawn state. For a period of over 18 months he was confined in a private madhouse run by Dr. Nathaniel Cotton. Cowper became so delusional that he began hearing voices in his sleep which finally put him over the edge in the minds of his overseers. He then spent the rest of his life waiting for his own death thinking he was damned.
external image 12630-004-0E908F3A.jpg

William Cullen (1710-1790)
William Cullen, 1710 - 1790. Chemist and physician - National Galleries of Scotland
William Cullen, 1710 - 1790. Chemist and physician - National Galleries of Scotland

The following information is from the Britannica Encyclopedia entry for William Cullen. Cullen was best known as a physician and professor. He was born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire, Scotland, where his father was a lawyer employed by the Duke. He is best known for his teachings and research in medicine. He created a nosology, which was a "treatise dealing with diseases; a classification or arrangement of diseases". He wrote a book called Synopsis Nosologiae Methodicae, which based the diagnosing of diseases on observable symptoms, much like modern day medicine. He also taught that life was a function of what he called nervous energy and that the muscles are connected to these the nerves, as a continuation of the nerves. William Cullen is best known for his teachings in medicine. He was one of the first to teach from his own notes in English, rather than to teach from a text in Latin. Many of those that were taught by Cullen went on to make contributions to science and medicine. Some of his pupils who studied nerves and the mind in the 18th century were Thomas Arnold, William Withering, and John Brown. Cullen died in 1790 in Kirknewton.

Sources:
{1} Britannica Encyclopedia

William Pargeter (1760-1810)
According to the text by Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine, William Pargeter wasborn in Northamptonshire in 1760, attended Oxford when he was seventeen. In 1786 he received his M.D. from Marischal College. Pargeter was one of the six founding members of the Medical Society of Oxford, which started its first session in 1780. The sessions consisted of multiple meetings lasting two or so hours. During the meetings, members would read papers that pertained to a topic of their interest that related to medicine.

Sources:
{1} http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1033475/

Urbane Metcalf
Urbane Metcalf was a patient at Bethlem Royal Hospital twice, once in 1804 until 1806, and once from 1817 until 1818. Metcalf believed he was the heir to the Danish throne, although his second stay in Bethlem apparently cured him of the belief, and left him rather depressed (1). However, Metcalf’s main contribution to the studies of the insane was not as a patient, but as an activist (2). In between Metcalf’s two stays in Bethlem, the hospital was moved to another location, and Metcalf’s second stay allowed him to compare the new Bethlem to the old. Metcalf states clearly that the new Bedlam was preferable to the old, but also protested that despite the better accommodations, the treatment by the staff at Bethlem towards the patients needed great reform (1). In the end, Metcalf stated that the principles of Bethlem were “good in principle” but “departed from in practice by the staff” (3).

Sources:
1. “Urbane Metcalf (1818).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998.
2. Metcalf, Urbane. The Interior of Bethlehem Hospital. London: By the Author, 1818. Pp.1-16.
3. Andrews, Jonathan. The history of Bethlem. New York, NY: Routledge, 1997. Pp. 306.
Back to Top


Zacutus Lusitanus (1575-1642)
Dr. Lusitanus was one of the most distinguished physicians of his time. He "wrote on the principles and history of medicine" {1}. He wrote a Praxis historiarum,which gained notability from modern medical readers.

Sources:
{1} “Thomas Arnold.” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 172.
{2} Jarcho, Saul M.D.. "The Style of Zacutus Lusitanus and its Origins". The Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 1989. Volume 44. pages 291-195.

Back to Top