Terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


This page will contain the main terms from all books we read in the class. When you add a new term, please make sure it is in alphabetical order with the rest of the page. From now on use the Oxford English Dictionary.



Agnosia - (n.) The inability to recognize and identify objects or persons despite having knowledge of the characteristics of those objects or persons. People with agnosia may have difficulty recognizing the geometric features of an object or face or may be able to perceive the geometric features but not know what the object is used for or whether a face is familiar or not.
Source: MedicineNet.com


Ainhoe (Ainhoa) - (n.) a small commune in the southwestern part of France by the Gulf of Biscaya.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Alexithymia - (n.) an affective disorder characterized by inability to recognize or express emotions.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Alexithymia

Alien Hand - (n.) symptom or an afterward result of a split brain surgery where one of the hands does not act the way the left brain thinks. It is caused by the two separate hemispheres fighting for control.

Alimetary duct – (n.) the lymphatic vessel that collects the lymph in the body and drains into the systemic circulation; in the 1700s, the term alimentary was used in anatomy to characterize anything related to nutrition; Cheyne relates it to a specifi humour (phlegm) in English Maladies , lamenting that they are “the first sensible Sufferers in all Bodily Maladies…”


Alimentary tube
- (n.) In animals, a tube along which food passes and through parts of whose walls nutrients are absorbed into the body. In some animals (e.g. coelenterates) the canal has a single opening. In most animals it has two: a mouth through which food enters; and an anus through which unabsorbed material leaves the body.

Alzheimer's disease - (n.) a common form of progressive mental deterioration typically beginning in late middle age, characterized clinically by memory loss, confusion, and disorientation, and pathologically by degeneration and loss of neurons and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Alzheimer

Amnesia - (n.) loss of memory.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Amnesia

Amygdala - (n.) one of the basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere, situated towards the front of the temporal lobe and concerned with the control of motivation and aggression.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Amygdala

Anger - (n.) That which pains or afflicts, or the passive feeling which it produces; trouble, affliction, vexation, sorrow and it is also defined as the active feeling provoked against the agent; passion, rage; wrath, ire, hot displeasure.
In the 18th century, Locke defines anger as an uneasiness of mind as a result of injury or present revenge.
Source: Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Oxford English Dictionary: Anger

Apoplexy - (n.) A malady, very sudden in its attack, which arrests more or less completely the powers of sense and motion; it is usually caused by an effusion of blood or serum in the brain, and preceded by giddiness, partial loss of muscular power, etc.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Apoplexy

Apoptosis - According to the Oxford English Dictionary, in the 18th century, apoptosis is the slippage of a body part from its normal position, as a result of relaxation of that part. Apoptosis also meant the loosening of a bandage over a wound.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Apoptosis

Apothecary - (n.) In the eighteenth century, the term ‘apothecary’ was originally used to describe “one who kept a store or shop of non-perishable commodities, spices, drugs, comfits, preserves, etc.” according to the Oxford English Dictionary. It also defines apothecary as taking the place of general medical practitioners by 1700. Recently, it has fallen out of use and been replaced with terms such as pharmacist or druggist.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Apothecary

Apperceptive Agnosia - (n.) the visual disorder that renders a person unable to recognize objects
Source: Wikipedia, Apperceptive agnosia

Asperger syndrome - (n.) a developmental disorder characterized by severe and sustained dysfunction in social interaction and by the development of restricted interests and activities, without delay in language or cognitive development, occurring more commonly in boys and considered to be a mild form of autistic disorder.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Asperger Syndrome

Associative Agnosia - (n.) the inability of a person to assign meaning to an object, animal or building that they can see clearly.
Source: Wikipedia, Associative Agnosia

Autism - (n.) A condition in which a person is morbidly self-absorbed and out of contact with reality.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Autism

Axiom - (n.) a proposition that commends itself to general acceptance; a well-established or universally-conceded principle; a maxim, rule, law.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Axiom

Axon - (n.) The body axis; a filamentous process of a nerve cell carrying outgoing nerve impulses, usually single and often very long, in contrast to the multiple, branched, and short incoming fibres or dendrites: the essential constituent of most nerves.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Axon

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Belief - (n.) mental acceptance of a proposition, statement, or fact, as true on the ground of authority or evidence; assent of the mind of a statement, or to the truth of a fact beyond observation, on the testimony of another, or to a fact or truth on the evidence of consciousness; the mental condition involved in this assent.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Belief

Bile - (n.) In the 18th century, bile was defined as a fluid secreted by the liver, and poured into the duodenum. It was an aid to the digestive process. It had a bitter, brownish yellow color, passing sometimes into green, and of a highly complex structure.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Bile

Bituminous - (adj.) used in the 18th century in industrial discourse; of or related to a black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation; modern definition used by Cheyne to describe the pollution of overpopulated London ("Sulphureous and Bituminous").
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary: Bituminous and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century.


Blood-Letting - (n.) The action or process of letting blood; phlebotomy.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Blood-Letting

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Cachexy - (n.) A depraved condition of the body, in which nutrition is everywhere defective.
The term cachexy was first coined by R. Copland to mean a depraved condition of the body, in which nutrition is everywhere defective. This term was used to describe the symptoms of many diseases throughout the 18th century including the build up of vapours within the body.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Cachexy

Calomel - (n.) Mercurous chloride, or ‘protochloride’ of mercury (Hg2 Cl2); a preparation much used in medicine in the form of a white powder with a yellow tinge, becoming grey on exposure to light; also found native as horn-quicksilver in crystals.
According to Crowther, "very beneficial in such cases of constipation" and in preventing mad persons from "retain[ing] urine for a long time".
Source: Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century; Oxford English Dictionary: Calomel

Cartesian - (adj.) Pertaining to Descartes, or to his philosophy or mathematical methods.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Cartesian

Caustic - (n./adj.) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, caustic means “a substance which burns and destroys living tissue when brought in contact with it”. In the eighteenth century, caustic referred to a substance that would burn on contact. With regards to the eighteenth century mind, caustics are significant because they were used in various medical procedures. For example, caustics were used to burn warts off of the skin. Tobias Smollett, in The expedition of Humphry Clinker, writes “He applied caustic to the wart”. In Patterns of Madness caustics are referenced on page 117, “The same intentions of Depletion and Revulsion seem indeed to recommend sinapisms, caustics, errhines, and vesicatories, as also the rougher cathartics, emetics, and volatile diaphoretics”.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Caustic

Cerebellum - (n.) The little or hinder brain; the mass of nervous matter forming the posterior part of the brain, situated behind and below the cerebrum, and above the medulla oblongata, and divided, like the cerebrum, into two ‘hemispheres’, one on each side.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Cerebellum

Cerebral Cortex - (n.) the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain, associated with the higher brain functions, as voluntary movement, coordination of sensory information, learning and memory, and the expression of individuality.
Source: Dictionary.com: Cerebral Cortex

Cerebrum - (n.) The brain proper; the convoluted mass of nervous matter forming the anterior, and, in the higher vertebrates, largest part of the brain; in man it overlaps all the rest and fills nearly the whole cavity of the skull.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Cerebrum

Chance - (n.) a happening or occurrence of things in a particular way; a casual or fortuitous circumstance.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Chance

Cathartic - (adj.) A medicine which has the power of purging or evacuating; a purgative. More strictly: ‘a medicine which is capable of producing the second grade of purgation, of which laxative is the first and drastic the third
According to "Patterns of Madness", cathartic is a purgative medicine, more fierce in operation than a laxative but less violent than drastic purge.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Cathartic

Chimaera - (n.)
In historical and mythological context, a mismatched monster (typically composed of a lion's head, a goat's head, and a serpent's tail) from antiquity. The incredulity of such a beast lead to the coining of the term to describe delusions and other false impressions of the mind in the 18th century. The famous psychiatric physician William Battie uses the term to describe the illusions of mentally ill patients, quoting from his work A Treatise on Madness: "...the perceptions of Chimaeras, which exists no where except in the brain of a Madman" (Battie 1758) This exert demonstrates how the term was used in the eighteenth century as a descriptive synonym to "delusio"
Sources: “William Battie (1703-76): A Treatise on Madness (1758), A: pp. 41-44, B: pp.68-77, C: pp. 93-99.” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174; Oxford English Dictionary: Chimaera

Choler - (n.) bile; one of the ‘four humours ’ of early physiology, supposed to cause irascibility of temper; often used in medical discourses of the 1700s; in the 18th century vomiting of this substance, along with phlegm, was believed by Cheyne to be a “cure of the symptoms of vapours, hysterical and hypochondriacal disorders”.
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary: Choler and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

Clyster - (n.) A medicine injected into the rectum, to empty or cleanse the bowels, to afford nutrition, etc.; an injection, enema; sometimes, a suppository.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Clyster

Complex ideas - (n.) These are made up of simple ideas combing together, it cannot be made by something that doesn’t exist or has not been reflected upon.

Comprehension - (n.) The action of comprehending, comprising, or including; the fact or condition of being so comprehended or comprised in a treatise, classification, description, proposition, etc.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Comprehension

Confabulation - (n.)
To fabricate imaginary experiences as compensation for loss of memory
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Confabulate

Confirmed Mania - (n.) Confirmed mania, or a manic episode today (Hill), is a period of time lasting usually longer than one week where the patient exhibits an elevated sense of agitation and are more easily irritated (Grohol). Patients that exhibited this heightened sense of aggression were traditionally let in within two months of symptoms, one of the fastest times in the 1700’s (Hill). This illness usually struck the middle-aged and was accompanied by: raised sense of self-worth, a need for less sleep, excessive harmful splurging, and forms of attention deficit.

Conscience - (n.)
Inward knowledge, consciousness; inmost thought, mind.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Conscience

Consequential madness - (n.)
The general 18th century term madness refers to delusions and foolishness that are like insanity; yet madness can be only an instance, rather than the prolonged ordinary insanity. According to 18th century physician William Battie , consequential madness is “followed [by] some injury or external cause”. These causes rather affect the functionality or physiology of the brain, which in term causes madness. In contrast to ordinary madness, consequential madness is curable or at least treatable. Battie also proposes the removal and correction of these illnesses, therefore, 18th century thought it possible to cure madness, as long as it wasn’t inherent. In modern terms, madness is separated into organic and functional madness.
Sources: William Battie. A Treatise on Madness (1758)

Convulsion - (n.)
A violent fit of laughter.
This word means the involuntary movement of your body in a spastic way. This applies to the 18th century in that it was considered a fatal and very dangerous condition. The typical treatment was to tie a person down and purge them of their evils or whatever is inside them causing them to move without their own will. Sometimes the convulsions were so strong that they caused the patients to go unconscious. Unfortunately in the 18th century sometimes the condition was worsened with restraining patients as the convulsions were so strong that when restrained patients would break bones and tear muscles involuntarily.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Convulsion

Coprolalia - (n.)
the use of obscene language by reason of insanity or for sexual gratification
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Coprolalia

Corpuscular Theory- (n.)
Concerned with corpuscles or atoms
A particular formulation of the 17th century, propounded by Locke's mentor Robert Boyle, which stated that matter is composed entirely of tiny, invisible, indivisible bits, called corpuscles. All events and states in the natural world can be explained with reference to the size, shape, and motion of these corpuscles. Locke believed strongly in this view of reality, and it had a powerful influence on the ideas he expounds in his Essay.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Corpuscular Theory

Cotard's Delusion - (n.) a rare neuropsychiatric disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that they are dead, do not exist,are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. Rarely, it can include delusions of immortality.

Custom (or Habit) - (n.)
A habitual or usual practice; common way of acting; usage, fashion, habit (either of an individual or of a community).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Custom

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Deduce - (v.) To derive or draw as a conclusion from something already known or assumed; to derive by a process of reasoning or inference; to infer.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Deduce

Decoction - (n.) used in 18th century medical discourses; boiling in water or other liquid so as to extract the soluble parts or principles of the substance; in the 1700s, Cheyne prescribed a decoction or tea of “carduus, chamomile flowers, horseradish, or any bitter or acrid plant” to induce vomiting in mentally ill patients. Sources: Oxford English Dictionary: Decoction and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

Delirium - (n.) In the eighteenth century, Delirium was often used the same way as its modern definition, " A disordered state of the mental faculties resulting from disturbance of the functions of the brain" However, the term was also applied more widely as "Uncontrollable excitement or emotion, as of a delirious person; frenzied rapture; wildly absurd thought or speech."
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Delerium

Delusive Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Notional Insanity" (Arnold 164). Dr. Arnold states that delusive insanity is "accompanied by a considerable degree of compression, compactness, or firmness, of the brain, and, in many, with no inconsiderable activity of its small arteries" (Arnold 297). The patient experiences a considerable amount of pressure in the brain and blood loss which cause the patient to experience severe fits. In addition to these symptoms, the patient also becomes delirious, similar to phrenetic insanity (Arnold 298). Sources:“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.
“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity, Volume 2. Ed. B. McMillan. London: Bow Street, Covent Garden, 1806. 297-298.

Demonstrative Reasoning - (n.) reasoning concerning the relations of ideas (hume pg.25)

Dendrite - (n.) Any of one or more processes from a nerve cell which are typically short and extensively branched and which conduct impulses towards the cell body. A single nerve may possess many dendrites. Also called dendron.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Dendrite

Desire - (n.) a strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen. (v.) to strongly wish for or want.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Desire

Despair - (n.) The action or condition of despairing or losing hope; a state of mind in which there is entire want of hope; hopelessness.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Despair

Diaphoretic - (adj.) used in 18th century medical discourses; having the property of inducing or promoting perspiration; sudorific; H. Shirley suggested using “Diophoratick Medicines to expel Ill vapours from the noble parts by sweate”.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Diaphoretic

Diphtheria - (n.) An acute and highly infectious disease, characterized by inflammation of a mucous surface, and by an exudation therefrom which results in the formation of a firm pellicle or false membrane. Its chief seat is the mucous membrane of the throat and air passages, but other mucous surfaces are at times attacked, as are also wounds or abrasions of the skin.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Diphtheria

Distemper - (n.) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, distemper means "Deranged or disordered condition of the body or mind (formerly regarded as due to disordered state of the humours); ill health, illness, disease". In the eighteenth century, distemper often referred to a disorder in the mind. With regards to the eighteenth century mind, distemper is important because it was commonly used to explain strange occurances, with the belief that the person was ill. Robert South, in Sermons preached upon several occasions, states "It argues sickness and distemper in the mind, as well as in the body, when a man is continually turning and tossing".
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Dopamine - (n.) The immediate precursor of noradrenaline in the body, found esp. in nervous and peripheral tissue and formed by decarboxylation of dopa; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, C8H11NO2.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Dopamine

Doppelganger - (n.) The apparition of a living person; a double, a wraith.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Doppelganger = Double-ganger

Down’s syndrome - (n.) a congenital disorder characterized by mental retardation and various physical abnormalities, including short stature, brachycephalic skull, and facial dysmorphia with epicanthic folds and fissured tongue, resulting from trisomy or translocation of chromosome 21.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Down's Syndrome

Dualism - (n.) a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical; "Cartesian Dualism" usually attributed to René Descartes
Source: Oxford English Dictionary:

Duodenum - (n.) the portion of the intestines immediately following the stomach and right before the jejunum. The part of the stomach where food begins to be broken down in; the duodenum uses fibers and muscles to contract and breakdown the particles inside; when mixed with bile from the gallbladder, the duodenum begins the process of assimilating nutrients. Was thought (along with the rest of the digestive tract) in 18th century to contribute to the release of vapors from the body through the breakdown of food with the assistance of bodily fluids.
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary
The National Institute of Health
A treatise of vapours: or hysterick fits. Pages 19-20


Dura mater - (n.)
In the eighteenth century, dura mater was defined as an inelastic membrane, about the thickness of parchment. With regards to the eighteenth century mind, dura matter is significant because fluid would normally be found between it and the pia mater. When this fluid was in larger amounts during autopsy it was used to explain a person’s madness. For example William Battie, writes “For when internal exostoses , induration of the Dura Mater, fracture intropression and concussion of the head occasion such pressure, Removal is apparently impracticable.”
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Dura Mater

Dyslexia - (n.)
a difficulty in reading due to affection of the brain
Often thought to be a neurological disorder, dyslexia is seen in people of all levels of intelligence
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Dyslexia


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Effect Cause (Reasoning/Rational) - (n.) the reasoning where the cause is deduced based on the effect, rather than deducing the effect based on the cause. Humans tend to reason this way. (Hume, 99)

Emetics/Emeticks -(adj.) Having the power to produce vomiting. In the 18th century, emetics were used as drugs to cause one to vomit, after consuming poison, for example. More prominently, emetics were an important treatment for madness. John Monro , an 18th century Scottish physician, for example, tells of how one man, "who had laboured under a melancholy for three years" and a "hypochondriacal, convulsive disorder," was "relieved entirely by the use of vomits, and a proper regimena." (Monro 122).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Emetic , “Monro, John (1715-91).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 120-122).

Empiricism - (n.) the doctrine which regards experience as the only source of knowledge.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Empiricism

Emunctory - (adj.) That has the function of conveying waste matters from the body.
Used in 18th century medical discourses; any act that has the function of conveying waste matters from the body; early physiologist Cheyne prescribed purging for any illness that would stop [emunctory] secretions, and fill the body with vicious and morbid juices.”
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

English Malady
- (n.) depression or moroseness regarded as typical of English people.
According to BBC, this malady was specifically "English" because this disease was supposedly common to the wealthy, sophisticated people of England. A book titled "The English Malady" was written in 1733 by George Cheyne (who coined the term), who believed he himself suffered from the English Malady. Dr. Cheyne believed that a person's physical and psychological health were intertwined, so he stressed the importance of society and lifestyle (especially diet) on health.
Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/longview/longview_20031007_readings.shtml; Oxford English Dictionary: English Malady


Epicure - (n.) An Epicure is literally a follower of Epicurus. In the eighteenth century the definition applied to anyone who gave themselves up to sensual pleasures as derived from the teachings of Epicurus, i.e. food, and sex.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Epicure

Enquiry - (n.) the action of seeking, esp. for truth, knowledge, or information concerning something; search, research, investigation, examination.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Enquiry

Envy - (n.)
Malignant or hostile feeling; ill-will, malice, enmity
Source Oxford English Dictionary: Envy

Episodic memory - (n.) personal memories that represent past experiences that are stored in the cortex

Epistemological psychology - (n.) Epistemology qualifies the methods or grounds of knowledge in a theoretical or scientific way.
Therefore, this branch of psychology is in relation to the definition and origins of knowledge, and it has great relevance to the empirical and rational factions in the 18th century.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Epistemology

Erisipelas (Erysipelas) - (n.) A disease that causes an inflammation of the skin. It produces a deep red color and patches on the skin, which is why people refer to it as St. Anthony’s fire or ‘the rose.’ In the 18th century, the disease was easy to get because of the lack of hygiene. It caused a fear among people because Erisipelas is contagious and spreads quickly over the body. Today there is medicine to get rid of the inflammation, but in the 18th century, they did not have easy cures. To find a story of a family infected with Erisipelas go to: http://www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk2/Part4/Ch05.htm
Source: http://freefactfinder.com/definition/Erisipelas.html, http://footguards.tripod.com/01ABOUT/01_sickness.htm

Eructation - (n.)
The action of voiding wind from the stomach through the mouth; belching
Cabbage..is greatly accus'd for lying undigested in the Stomack and provoking Eructations.
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary: Eructation , John Evelyn's Acetaria, 1699

Errhine - (n.) used in 18th century medical discourses; a medicine which when applied to the mucous membrane of the nose increases the natural secretions and produces sneezing; reported T. Fuller in Extemporaneous Pharmacy (1710), “errhines are to be us’d cheefly in the Morning”.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Errhine

Evidence - (n.) Ground for belief; testimony or facts tending to prove or disprove any conclusion.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Evidence

Experience - (n.) The actual observation of facts or events, considered as a source of knowledge.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Experience

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Faith - (n.) The spiritual apprehension of divine truths, or of realities beyond the reach of sensible experience or logical proof.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Faith

Fanaticism - Fanaticism, in accordance to the 18th century, may be described as a “condition of being possessed”. It is often observed that fanatics have a “tendency to indulge in wild and extravagant notions, especially in religious matters”. A fanatic is also often used as a reference for “excessive enthusiasm” or “over enthusiasm”. The first use of the dates back to the early 17th century, and was used as a context relating to madness of a being.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Fanaticism


Fear - (n.) An instance of the emotion; a particular apprehension of some future evil.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Fear

First Principle - (n.) a primary proposition, considered self-evident, upon which further reasoning or belief is based.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: First Principle

Force - as an attribute of physical action or movement: Strength, impetus, violence, or intensity of effect.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Force

Fregoli delusion (Fregoli syndrome) - (n.) a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise.

Frenetic (Phrenetic) - (adj.) insane, crazy, frantic, deranged, or erratic when describing persons or actions. Consisting of or attended by delirium or temporary madness when describing and illness or disease.
(n.) a madman. Derived from the term phrenitis, the inflammation of the brain attended by fever and delirium.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary : Phrenetic

Fugue - (n.) ‘A polyphonic composition constructed on one or more short subjects or themes, which are harmonized according to the laws of counterpoint, and introduced from time to time with various contrapuntal devices.’ In other words the loss of personal memories, but retention of factual memory
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Fugue

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Glial Cells - (n.) Any of the cells making up the neuroglia, especially the astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and microglia. W.R. Gowers defined glia cells asfine fibres that form a network but in their intersections there are peculiar cells consisting of a nucleus and small cell body, the glial cells.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Glial

God - (n.) A superhuman person who is worshiped as having power over nature and the fortunes of mankind; a deity. God was referred to in many different ways during the 18th century depending on a person's personal beliefs.

Source: Oxford English Dictionary: God

Grey Matter - (n.) the major component of the central nervous system, responsible for the routing of sensory information to interneurons of the CNS. (as opposed to white matter).
In the 18th century it was referred as the grey-coloured matter of which the active part of the brain is composed. G. Ellis referred to grey matter in Anat referring to it in the third ventricle as entirely concealinf the crus of the fornix (a part of the brain).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Grey Matter

Gyrus - (n.) a convolution, especially of the brain
,
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Gyrus

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Habit - see Custom

Hallucinations - (n.) the mental condition of being deceived or mistaken, or of entertaining unfounded notions; an idea or belief to which nothing real corresponds; an illusion.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Hellebore - (n.)
Any of various medicinal plants valued chiefly for their strong purgative properties, mostly belonging to the genera Veratrum (family Melanthiaceae) andHelleborus (family Ranunculaceae).

Hiera Picra- (n.) meaning “Sacred Bitters,” a purgative drug composed of aloes and canella bark, sometimes mixed with honey and other ingredients. It was administered for nearly any illness and used to help loosen the body and remove ill humors thought to affect the health of mind and body. The word is mentioned in a medicinal use by Mary Delaney in the eighteenth century in the writing of The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mrs. Delaney when she wrote of a friend “He takes nervous draughts and hiera picra. “ It is also used in medical journals and related publications.
Source: The Oxford English Dictionary.

Hippocampus - (n.) an enfolding of cerebral cortex into the lateral fissure of a cerebral hemisphere, having the shape in cross section of a sea horse.

Hope- (n.) pleasure in the mind at the thought of a future success

Humors –(n.) the four vital fluids in the body. Black Bile, Yellow Bile, blood, and phlegm


Hydrophobia - (n.) A symptom of rabies or canine madness when transmitted to man, consisting in an aversion to water or other liquids, and difficulty in swallowing them; hence the disease of rabies, esp. in human beings.

Hypochondriac - (n.) (adj.) of morbid states: Proceeding from, or having their origin in, the hypochondria, regarded as the seat of melancholy; hence, consisting in, or having the nature of, a settled depression of spirits.

Hypochondriacal Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Notional Insanity" (Arnold 164). According to Dr. Arnold, "the patient is for ever in distress about his own state of health, has a variety of disagreeable, and sometimes painful feelings, to which he is ever anxiously attentive, and from which he can rarely divert his thoughts, either to business, or amusement" (Arnold 172). In other words, an inflicted person is very obsessive and compulsive about his or her health and is very anxious and paranoid but everything in his or her life.
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.

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Idea - (n.) Any product of mental apprehension or activity, existing in the mind as an object of knowledge or thought; an item of knowledge or belief; a thought, conception, notion; a way of thinking.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Ideal Insanity - (n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician that coined this term or form of insanity, states that it occurs when "the patient imagines he sees, hears, or otherwise perceives...persons or things...which have no external existence" ( Arnold 164). In other words, when a person sees people and objects and believes them to be tangible and real even though they do not exist, he or she is inflicted with this form of insanity. Hallucination is the contemporary term that encompasses this condition. Dr. Arnold also states subgroups of this form of insanity include Phrenitic, Incoherent, Maniacal, and Sensitive (Arnold 164).
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.


Identity - (a.) The quality or condition of being the same in substance, composition, nature, properties, or in particular qualities under consideration; absolute or essential sameness; oneness.

Illusion - (n.) a distortion of the reality as perceived by the senses. The most common type of illusion is an optical illusion. It is often observed that an illusion is shared by many people, and is therefore not a characteristic disorder of the senses.

Immaterialism - (n.) The doctrine that matter does not exist in itself as a substance or cause, but that all things have existence only as the ideas or perceptions of a mind. There was much debate between the immaterialist and materialist of the eighteenth-century, much due to differences in religious beliefs. Immaterialists attempted to preserve the ideology of God’s omnipresence in the human mind and body. Materialists were seen as a direct threat to that philosophy. George Berkeley, for example, accuses that “Pantheism, Materialism, Fatalism are nothing but Atheism a little disguised.”
Source: Oxford English Dictionary
Source: Yolton, John W. Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth-century Britain. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1983. Print.

Impression - (n.) The effect produced by external force or influence on the senses or mind.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Incoherent Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Ideal Insanity" (Arnold 164). According to Dr. Arnold, "its [incoherent insanity] characteristic is an incoherency of ideas, occasioned by an excessive, perverted, or defective activity of the imagination and memory, accompanied with images existing in the mind, which do not really exist" (Arnold 169). In other words, the patient has hallucinations and lascivious and incoherent thoughts. Dr. Arnold states that this form of insanity is caused when the brain becomes "too active" and "produces, perpetually, trains of apparently unconnected, or very slightly connected, ideas" ( Arnold 169).
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.


Induce (as in Induction) - (v.) To infer; esp. in recent use, to infer by reasoning from particular facts to general principles; to derive as an induction. Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Inference - (n.) The drawing of a conclusion from known or assumed facts or statements.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Innate knowledge - (n.) according to Locke we are not born with any ideas or thoughts in our minds, this means we are a tabula rasa, or a blank slate

Instinct - (n.) An innate propensity in organized beings (esp. in the lower animals), varying with the species, and manifesting itself in acts which appear to be rational, but are performed without conscious design or intentional adaptation of means to ends. Also, the faculty supposed to be involved in this operation (formerly often regarded as a kind of intuitive knowledge).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Instinct - (n.) An innate propensity in organized beings (esp. in the lower animals), varying with the species, and manifesting itself in acts which appear to be rational, but are performed without conscious design or intentional adaptation of means to ends. Also, the faculty supposed to be involved in this operation (formerly often regarded as a kind of intuitive knowledge).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

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Jaundice - (n.) A medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, fingernails, and eyes. Usually caused by the liver failing. In the eighteenth century it was mainly seen and newborns and was almost always fatal. It was thought that a person with jaundice saw everything in yellow due to the yellowness of their eyes. For example Nicholas Robinson writes "After the fiftieth Year, a Jaundice happening upon a schirrous Liver or Spleen, always turns to the Black Jaundice, and kills the Patient." The typical treatment for jaundice in the eighteenth century was considered to be laxatives or enimas.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16421049,

Justice - (n.) The quality of being (morally) just or righteous; the principle of just dealing; the exhibition of this quality or principle in action; just conduct; integrity, rectitude. (One of the four cardinal virtues.)
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

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Knowledge - (n.) Intellectual acquaintance with, or perception of, fact or truth; clear and certain mental apprehension; the fact, state, or condition of understanding.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Korsakoff's syndrome - (n.) a brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain. The syndrome is named after Sergei Korsakoff, the neuropsychiatrist who popularized the theory. This neural disorder is characterized by severe memory loss, lack of insight, confabulation, and poor conversational skills. It is also observed that real memories are blurred into false ones.

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Laming - (v.) to make lame; cripple.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Laming

Latex - (n.) The name given to juice of any sort in the body; esp. the watery part of the blood and other secretions.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Latex

Laudanum - (n) A preparation in which opium is used as a main ingredient.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Laudanum

Leprosy - (n.) An infectious bacterial disease (Elephantasis Graecorum), which slowly eats away at the body, and forms shiny white scales on the skin; common in medieval Europe.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Leprosy

Leucotomy - (n.) a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

Liberty - (n.) a power of acting or not acting, according to the determinations of the will (as defined by Hume, 69)

Limbic System - (n.) a ring of interconnected structures in the midline of the brain around the hypothalamus, involved with emotion and memory and with homeostatic regulatory systems.
Source: Dictionary.com

Lobotomy - (n.) long with leucotomy, prefrontal and transorbital lobotomies were the more common three versions of psychosurgery in the early 20th century. In a lobotomy, a surgeon would sever the nerves of the patients upper forehead using a blade, in order to "alleviate" chronic, severe backaches and headaches.(The transorbital lobotomy proved to be the most dangerous as the surgeon had to blindly estimate where to hit the probing instrument after insertion through the eye socket.)

Logical Fallacy - (n.) any of various types of erroneous reasoning that render arguments logically unsound.

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Madhouse - (n.) A house set apart for the reception and detention of the insane; a mental hospital or home, a lunatic asylum.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Madhouse

Magnesia alba - (n.)- a chemical compound experimented with in the 1700s. Magnesia alba helped alchemists to discover the metallic element now called Magnesium. Source: Mark Shand, The History and Technology of Magnesium

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - (n.) also called NMR. ; a noninvasive diagnostic procedure employing a magnetic resonance scanner to obtain detailed sectional images of the internal structure of the body.

Maniacal Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Ideal Insanity" (Arnold 164). Dr. Arnold states that "maniacal insanity, so called, as a species, is of all others, perhaps, the most comprehensive; since it extends its domain over the whole internal world of ideas" (Arnold 170). Dr. Arnold places all of the ailments that encompass ideal insanity but are not covered by the other subgroups into this subgroup. Specifically, the patient "is continually haunted by a dreadful spectre; or sees persons who are dead, or absent; or hears voices, and sounds, which he does not hear; or that he is a king" (Arnold 170). The patient basically has a very vivid and extreme hallucinations that are not included in the other subgroups.
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.

Materialism - (n.) The theory or belief that nothing exists except matter and its movements and modification. In essence, materialism is the philosophy that everything is matter whether it is understood or not. For example, although it was unknown in the eighteenth-century precisely how the mind controls the body, it did not mean an “otherworldly” force, such as a god, was involved; instead, materialists of the eighteenth-century believed it was due to physical properties that had yet to be explained.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary
Source: Yolton, John W. Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth-century Britain. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1983. Print.

Matters of Fact - ideas that are no less intelligible than their contradictions (Hume,18)

Maxim - (n.) a proposition, esp. one which is pithily worded, expressing a general truth drawn from science or experience.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Meatus auditorius - (n.)- the passage leading from the external ear to the eardrum.
Source: The London Medical Dictionary

Meningitis - (n.) A term in modern usage which is used for inflammation of the membranes on the surface of the brain, involving high fever, severe headache, and stiff muscles in the neck or back. Can be caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infections.

Metaphysics - (n.) the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things or reality, including questions about being, substance, time and space, causation, change, and identity (which are presupposed in the special sciences but do not belong to any one of them); theoretical philosophy as the ultimate science of being and knowing.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Mind - (n.) The seat of awareness, thought, volition, feeling, and memory; cognitive and emotional phenomena and powers considered as constituting a presiding influence; the mental faculty of a human being (esp. as regarded as being separate from the physical); (occas.) this whole system as constituting a person's character or individuality.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Miracle - (n.)
1. an effect or extraordinary event in the physical world that surpasses all known human or natural powers and is ascribed to a supernatural cause.
2. such an effect or event manifesting or considered as a work of God.
3. a wonder; marvel.
4. a wonderful or surpassing example of some quality: a miracle of modern acoustics.

Missionary - (n.)
1. A person sent by a church into an area to carry on evangelism or other activities, as educational or hospital work.
2. A person strongly in favor of a program, set of principles, etc., who attempts to persuade or convert others.
3. A person who is sent on a mission.

Molyneux's Problem - (n.) A problem proposed by William Molyneux in which a blind man can distinguish between objects by feel, however if his sight were given back to him, would he be able to distinguish the object purely by sight?
Source: Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia

Moral - (adj.) Of or relating to human character or behaviour considered as good or bad; of or relating to the distinction between right and wrong, or good and evil, in relation to the actions, desires, or character of responsible human beings; ethical.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Morality - (n.) The branch of knowledge concerned with right and wrong conduct, duty, responsibility, etc.; moral philosophy, ethics. Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Moral Reasoning - reasoning concerning matter of fact an existence (Hume pg.25)

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD, also Dissociative Identity Disorder) - (n.) a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a person displays multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters), each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment.

Myelinization - (n.) the development of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber

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Necessary Connexion -

Neurons - (n.) cells adapted to carry an electrical signal from one to another. Each neuron can connect with up to ten thousand neurons.

Neurotransmitter - (n.) a chemical substance that relays messages from nerves to other cells.

Niter - (n.) a crystalline salt known as potassium nitrate (KNO3) that occurs as a product of nitrification in arable soils, is a strong oxidizer, and is used especially in making gunpowder, as a fertilizer, and in medicine.

Notional Insanity - (n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician that coined this term or form of insanity, states that it occurs when "the patient sees, hears, or otherwise perceives external objects as they really exist...yet conceives such notions of the powers...of things and persons, of himself and others, as appear obviously, and often grossly erroneous" (Arnold 164). Dr. Arnold means that the person sees people and objects that legitimately exist in the world, but associates mystical powers with them or obsesses over them because he or she does not grasp their true essence. Dr. Arnold also states Subgroups of this form of insanity that include Delusive, Whimsical Scheming, and Hypochondriacal (Arnold 164).
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.

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Opinion - (n.) a view held about a particular issue; a judgment formed or a conclusion reached; a belief; a religious or political conviction. Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Original Madness - (n.) In the 18th century, "original madness" referred to an insanity present in an individual since birth which had no cure or treatment, as opposed to consequential madness which developed later in life.
Source: John Monro , Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

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Parenchyma - (n.) specialized tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its connective tissue or stroma; an instance of this.
In the eighteenth century, this term was used in connection with the nerves and believed to play an important role in sensory experience according to Thomas Willis, the parenchyma plays a secondary role in nerve functioning. "Fibres, planted or interwoven in the Membranes, musculous Flesh, Tendons, and some of the Parenchyma...animals Spirits." (Willis, 19)

Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Parenchyma

Parietal Cortex - (n.) part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying below the crown of the head

Paroxysm - (n.) used in the 18th century in discourses of madness to characterize any uncontrollable eruption of emotion; e.g., Cheyne writes, "Pleasing impressions, if intense, are more calculated to bring on sudden paroxysm than those that are painful" in mentally ill patients.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary


Pargeter's “catching the eye” - (v.) William Pargeter , an 18th century physician at both Oxford and St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, was a strong supporter of the idea of “management.” That is, that the symptoms of insanity, if not insanity itself, can be controlled by the doctor himself instead of by numerous medications. To this effect, on first meeting a patient, Pargeter would rush into the room and “catch” the patient’s eye, thus establishing his firm authority over the patient. Thereafter, Pargeter exhibited a kind of placebo effect; by telling the patient what to do, and being in a position of authority, the patient’s symptoms would fail to appear, as per “the doctor’s orders.”
Source: Pargeter, William. Observations on Maniacal Disorders. 1792.


Pathology - (n.) According to Jeremy Bentham, the original Latin definition is the “knowledge of the feelings, affections, and passions, and their effects upon happiness” (1). Jeremy Bentham was an English lawyer and moral philosophist (according to Wikipedia) (2) who used the term in his published political works in the mid-eighteenth century to nineteenth century. However, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was most commonly used in the eighteenth century and today to mean “the study of the cause and nature of diseases and abnormal anatomical and physiological conditions” (3). Many philosophers still believed that mental illnesses were caused by an imbalance of humors, but physicians were starting to discover otherwise when the examining of dead bodies started in the eighteenth century, according to faqs.org (4).
Sources:
(1) Excerpt of Jeremy Bentham's "Principle of the Code": http://www.laits.utexas.edu/poltheory/bentham/pcc/pcc.pa01.c06.html
(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremy_Bentham
(3) Oxford English Dictionary
(4) http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/72/Pathology.html

Perception - (n.) The action of the mind by which it refers sensations to external objects, phenomena, etc., as their cause.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Pericranium - (n.) In regards to 18th century, the pericranium was viewed as the innermost layer of tissue covering the skull. It was often thought that some types of mental maladies could be attributed to pressure, sores, or ulcers on the pericranium. The term is most often used when describing medical operations used in 18th century writing; the use of percranium is seen most often when describing autopsies of deceased mental patients.
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary
“John Haslam (1764-1844).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 193-207.

Peripneumony - (n.) Inflammation of the lung(s); Of or having pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs, causing coughing, a fever, inflammation of the lung tissues, and possibly death if untreated. In most cases, there is a build-up of fluid or mass in the lung(s), which can affect breathing. William Pargeter , an English physician in the 18th century, spoke of a "woman with peripneumony, occasioned by some tea, or bread and butter passing down the trachea in a fit of laughter; as the symptoms were acute and suspicious.." Peripneumony was not fully understood in the 18th century, but physicians at the time were observing the symptoms and trying to gather more information.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary, http://www.medicinenet.com/pneumonia/article.htm, William Pargeter (1760-1810).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. pg. 179-186.

Phantasm - (n.) a thing or being which apparently exists but is not real; a hallucination or vision; a figment of the imagination; an illusion. Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Phlebotomy - (n.) The action or practice of extracting blood from a vein for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes (originally by surgical incision of the vein, later by means of a needle and syringe, cannula, etc.); venesection; venepuncture.

Phlegm - (n.) one of the four bodily humours , believed to be associated with a calm or apathetic temperament. Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Philosophy - (n.) The branch of knowledge that deals with the principles of human behaviour; The love, study, or pursuit of wisdom, truth, or knowledge.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Phobia - (n.) a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it.
Source: Dictionary.com

Photographic (eidetic) Memory - (n.) the ability to recall images with vividness bordering on actual visual perception.

Phrenetic Insanity- (n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Ideal Insanity" (Arnold 164). He states that "the patient raves incessantly, or with short, and those rarely lucid intervals, either about one, or various objects; and laughs, sings, whistles, weeps, laments, prays, shouts, swears, threatens, [or] attempts to commit violence either to himself or others" (Arnold 168). In other words, the patient is basically delirious and experiences hallucinations, restlessness, and talks and thinks incoherently (Arnold 168).
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.

Phrenology - (n.) the theory that the mental powers or characteristics of an individual consist of separate faculties, each of which has its location in an organ found in a definite region of the surface of the brain, the size or development of which is commensurate with the development of the particular faculty; the study of the external conformation of the cranium as an index to the position and degree of development of the various faculties.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Pia mater – (n.) of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, the pia mater is the innermost of all three. It is a thin, vascular, fibrous membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. The pia mater was referred in the 18th century when performing surgeries. They would call liquids from this part of the brain and if it were to get inflamed, the pain would cause a delirium.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Plexus choroides - (n.) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, in the 18th century plexus choroides referred to "a structure consisting of interconnected branches of nerves or blood vessels connected by a thin membrane derived from the pia mater, in each lateral ventricle of the brain forming a cordlike border on each side of the velum interpositum, as well as similar structures in the third and fourth ventricles of the brain." For example, John Haslam notes that a yellowish discoloration of the plexus choroides, when accompanied by other symptoms, could be indicative of madness.
Sources: Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century, Haslam, Case XXVII; Oxford English Dictionary

Precesure memory - (n.) the memories of how to do things; typically controlled by the putamen

Prefrontal lobe - (n.) this cortex is responsible for cognition and behavioral decisions, as well as the moderation of social behaviors.

Pleurisy - (n.) In early use:
{dag}
{dag}
an abscess of the ribs or inner surface of the chest (obs.); pain in the chest or the side, esp. when stabbing in nature and exacerbated by inspiration or coughing; an instance of this; any disease resulting in such pain.

Principle - (n.) A fundamental truth or proposition on which others depend; a general statement or tenet forming the (or a) basis of a system of belief, etc.; a primary assumption forming the basis of a chain of reasoning.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Proof - (n.) The action, process, or fact of proving or establishing the truth or validity of a statement; the action of evidence in convincing the mind; demonstration.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Proposition - (n.) A statement which is capable of truth or falsity; also a mental formulation of that which is expressed by such a statement.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Propragnosia (face blindness) - (n.) an inability or difficulty in recognizing familiar faces; it may be congenital or result from injury or disease of the brain.

Propriety - (n.) conformity to established standards of good or proper behavior or manners.

Purging - (v.) The act of removing excess of the a humor from the body in order to reach a balance. Excess of a humor was thought to cause illness of the body and mind following humorism. Normally, this done using medical procedures, medications, or any other treatment that seemed fitting at the time.
Sources: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6836
http://elane.stanford.edu/wilson/html/chap5/chap5-sect4.html


Pyrrhonism - (n.) scepticism; philosophic doubt.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary


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Quinine - (n.) A bitter alkaloid found in cinchona bark; a drug containing this or any of several of its derivatives, employed in the treatment of malaria and (in early use) as a general febrifuge and tonic.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Quinine

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Reason - (n.) The power of the mind to think and form valid judgments by a process of logic; the mental faculty which is used in adapting thought or action to some end; the guiding principle of the mind in the process of thinking.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary


Relation
- (n.) The action of giving an account of something; narration, report.

Relations of ideas - propositions that are discoverable by the mere operations of thought.(Hume pg.18)

Religion - (n.)
1. Action or conduct indicating belief in, obedience to, and reverence for a god, gods, or similar higher being; the performance of religious rites or observances.
2. A particular system of faith and worship.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Retrograde amnesia - (n.) a form of amnesia where an individual is unable to recollect memories before the development of amnesia. This form of amnesia often results from damage to the brain regions most closely related with episodic memory.

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Sal Diureticus - (n.) used in 18th century medical discourses; literally diuretic salt; potassium acetate according to old medical chemistry in the 18th century; essential for normal renal function and carbohydrate metabolism; William Battie claimed that it was “deservedly recommended by Dr. Mead in maniacal cases”.
Sources: Collaborative International Dictionary of English and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

Scheming Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Notional Insanity" (Arnold 164). According to Dr. Arnold, "it takes its rise from intense application of mind to, and incessant and uniform brooding over, some one object; which has taken hold of the imagination, and gained the affection, as especially, if not solely, worthy of attention, and pursuit" (Arnold 307). In other words, the patient is insane when he or she obsess over something in his or her life beyond practical means and never ceases.
Sources:

“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.
“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity, Volume 2. Ed. B. McMillan. London: Bow Street, Covent Garden, 1806. 297-298.



Scorbutic(k)
- (adj.) used in 18th century medical discourses; of or pertaining to scurvy; while maintaining a diet of milk, vegetables, and wine, Cheyne wrote that he would experience fever and “large blisters full of scorbutick ichor (scurvy blood/lymph)” every third month. Sources: Oxford English Dictionary and Patterns of Madness in the 18th Century

Self - (n.) in philosophy, broadly defined as the essential qualities that make a person distinct from all others; expressed in the 1st person by Descartes, Locke, Hume, and William James

Semantic dementia - (n.) a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic memory in both the verbal and non-verbal domains

Semantic memory - (n.) factual memories encoded in cortical areas in the temporal lobe

Sensitive Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Ideal Insanity" (Arnold 164). According to Ar. Arnold, "the disorder shows itself chiefly, or remarkably, in erroneous images which are excited in the mind, relative the person's own form, substance, or other sensible qualities, or contents" (Arnold 171). Inflicted patients think they are "transformed into wolves, dogs, lions, cats,...earthen vessels, pipkins, jars, teapots, bricks,...." (Arnold 171). In other words, the patients see objects images and interpret their sensations in such a way as to become the objects or images.
Source: “Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.

Serotonin - (n.) located in the central nervous system, serotonin has various functions, including the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning; and in blood platelets where it helps to regulate and blood clotting.

Simple idea - (n.) this comes from one of the senses , and it is the building block by which all other ideas come from. They cannot be destroyed, and they are the most basic ideas possible.

Sinapism - (n.) A poultice is a moist, heated substance with pasty consistency that is applied to the skin for the purposes of healing, reducing swelling, and relieving pain. A sinapism is a specific poultice that consists of mustard. It was used as a medical treatment in the eighteenth century to it quickly irritate the skin. It could also be in moderate amounts in combination with an ordinary poultice as a stimulant. Dr. William Battie , when discussing treatments of madness wrote, “…. Depletion and Revulsion seem indeed to recommend sinapisms, caustics, errhines, and vesicatories, as also the rougher cathartics, emetics, and volatile diaphoretics.” (Battie 117).
Sources: Oxford English Dictionary, Chambers's Encyclopedia: A dictionary of universal knowledge, Volume 8,
Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 116).

Sizy - (adj.) In the eighteenth century, sizy was another word for thick or viscous, literally resembling something with size. In this time period it is often used to refer to the consistency of blood or other bodily fluids.

Sizyness - (a.) The word was used extensively in the 1800's as a adjective, especially with relation to the quality and description of blood. The word sizyness is derived from the word sizy, which has a descriptive meaning to itself. “Sizy” resembles size of something, and is related to the object being consistently thick, sticky and viscous. Sizyness is a quality of something, for instance blood. The first use of the word dates back to the late 1600's.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Sizyness

Skepticism - (n.) The doctrine of the Sceptics; the opinion that real knowledge of any kind is unattainable.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Skepticism

Species - (n.) a class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind.

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) - (n.) a condition in which otherwise bright, attentive children fail to pick up language in a normal way. Scientists have found that a small area used for processing consonant sounds may be deactivated due to electromagnetic inhibition in these children. This causes patients to have trouble understanding words that depend on consonant sounds for identification and thus explains for the lack of understanding of language as a whole.

Spleen - (n.) According the the Oxford English Dictionary, the term spleen was used to describe an "irritable or peevish temper". "...in short, every Symptom, not already classed under some particular limited Distemper, is called by the general Name of Spleen..."
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Spleen

Split Brain-(n) Free Online Medical Dictionary Definition of a split brain:
"One [brain] in which the connections between the hemispheres have been disrupted or severed; used to provide access to the third ventricle or to control epilepsy."


Sorrow
- (n.) uneasiness in the mind,upon the thought of a good lost,which might have been enjoyed longer,or a sense of evil.

Stroke - (n.).
A stroke is considered to be a rapid loss a brain functions due to a blockage of blood flow to the brain. Brain damage can result from this an in extreme cases can leave parts of the body paralyzed. Common signs of a stroke include speech inability, and the loss of motion on one side of the body. There are many different factors that can cause strokes with blood pressure being the leading cause. In the 18th century strokes were probably caused by either great amounts of stress or unhealthy diets. Strokes also cause a great deal of confusion among the victim which could be a reason why they might have been considered to be mad in the 18th century. Slurred speech resulting from strokes could also contribute to this.
Sources:http://www.medicinenet.com/stroke/page7.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke


Substance - (n.) the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Substance

Substratum - (n.) an underlying foundation
Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Sulcus - (n.) a fissure between two convolutions of the brain.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary

Synesthesia - (n.) a sensation produced in one modality when a stimulus is applied to another modality, as when the hearing of a certain sound induces the visualization of a certain color.

Systasis - (v.) An act of putting together or assembling something. In other words, systasis is the process of combining, or an alliance. The first use of the word dates all the way back to the early 1600's. Ever since, the use and meaning of the word remain unchanged, even with respect to its usage in the 18th century.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Systasis


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Tabula Rasa - (n.) a mind not yet affected by experiences, impressions, etc

Temporal Lobe
- (n.) the lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the occipital lobe.
Source: Dictionary.com

Thought - (n.) The action or process of thinking; mental action or activity in general, esp. that of the intellect; exercise of the mental faculty; formation and arrangement of ideas in the mind.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Thought

Tourette Syndrome - (n.) a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) - (n.) a non-invasive technique that consists of a magnetic field emanating from a wire coil held outside the head. The magnetic field induces an electrical current in nearby regions of the brain. TMS was originally developed as a diagnostic tool for mapping brain function. It appears promising as a treatment for some neuropsychiatric conditions, particularly major depression.

Truth - (n.) Conformity with fact; agreement with reality; accuracy, correctness, verity (of statement or thought).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Truth

Tumors - (n.) The action, or an act, of swelling; distension, increase of bulk; swollen condition.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Tumors

Tunica Arachnoidea - (n.)The 18th century term, “tunica arachnoidea”, now commonly known as the arachnoid is one of the threefold covering of the brain. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, “it is a membrane that lines the dura mater and envelopes the brain and spinal cord.”
Source: Oxford English Dictionary, A Practical Treatise on Medical Jurisprudence by J. Chitty

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Understanding - (n.) The faculty of comprehending and reasoning; the intellect.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Understanding

Universal Consent - (n.) an argument where the majority of people agree

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Vesiscatories - (n.)- causing a blister or something to blister. "Having the property, when applied to the skin, of raising a blister; blistering."
Source: The Imperial Dictionary of English Language

Virtue - (n.) Conformity of life and conduct with the principles of morality; voluntary observance of the recognized moral laws or standards of right conduct; abstention on moral grounds from any form of wrong-doing or vice.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Virtue


Viscidity - (adj.) The quality of being viscid; glutinousness, stickiness, ropiness.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Viscidity


Visual Agnosia Visual agnosia is a certain type of agnosia, in which the sufferer loses the ability to interpret familiar objects. In the 18th century, the inability of the authorities to realize this disorder potentially caused confusion by making others believe the sufferer was hallucinating.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Agnosia

Vitriol - (n.) One or other of various native or artificial sulphates of metals (see 2 and 3) used in the arts or medicinally, esp. sulphate of iron
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Vitriol

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Wernicke's Aphasia - (n.) a language disorder that impacts language comprehension and communication. The disorder is related to damage to the Wernicke's area of the brain. It is marked by a bulge called the angular gyrus.

Whimsical Insanity-(n.) Dr. Thomas Arnold , an 18th century British physician, coined this term or form of insanity under a category called "Notional Insanity" (Arnold 164). Dr. Arnold states that this form of insanity "is occasioned by such a degree of compression, and firmness of the brain, as is adapted to render it too irritable ; to excite, in a considerable degree, uncomfortable nervous feelings, a general gloom of mind, timidity and suspicion" (Arnold 300). Dr. Arnold means that the brain has a significant amount of pressure compressing it and thus makes the person paranoid and anxious like a hypochondriac.
Source:
“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Patterns of Madness: A Reader. Ed. Allen Ingram. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998. 164-174.
“Arnold, Thomas (1742-1816).” Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity, Volume 2. Ed. B. McMillan. London: Bow Street, Covent Garden, 1806. 297-298.


White Matter
- (n.) the fibrous matter of the brain and spinal cord, as distinct from the grey matter. The white matter is as opposed to the gray matter (the cortex of the brain which contains nerve cell bodies).
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: White Matter


Will - (n.)
1. The power or capacity of willing; that faculty or function which is directed to conscious and intentional action; power of choice in regard to action.
2. With qualification, in reference to individual character; idiomatically in a will of one's own, implying a strong or self-assertive will, and hence used as a euphemism for ‘wilfulness’.
Source: Oxford English Dictionary: Will

Williams syndrome (WS or Williams-Beuren syndrome) - (n.) a neuro-developmental disorder caused by a genetic mutation that produces mental retardation and other physical peculiarities and unusual linguistic skills. People with this disorder are also known to show extraordinary intuition, and ease with strangers.**

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